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Lecture 34

Pathology 3500 Lecture Notes - Lecture 34: Intracranial Pressure, Subarachnoid Space, Basement MembranePremium

3 pages86 viewsSpring 2018

Department
Pathology
Course Code
Pathology 3500
Professor
Jessica Shepherd
Lecture
34

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PATH MARCH 16
Uniqueness of the CNS
Functional localization
Bony encasement (closed box)
Increased intracranial pressure
Herniations
When there is increased pressure
Brain will move from an area of higher pressure to an area lower pressure
Movement is herniation
Blood brain barrier
Tight junction of endothelial cells
Basement membrane
Astrocyte foot processes forms a web around the blood vessels
Cerebellar Disorder
Problems in the rate, range, direction and force of movement
Rate: can’t consistently tap their hand
Range and directly: struggle to hit a target they see
Force: can’t consistently tap their hand with the same amount of pressure
Intracranial Pressure and the Closed Box
The cranium is composed of:
The brain
The blood
Iin artery, veins, capillaries
Water
CSF in the subarachnoid space, ventricles, lower end of the spinal cord
(spinal cavity)
The most “flexible” part of the cranium
Added pressure causes many problems in the acute setting
Small amount of pressure/volume changes can cause issues
45-50 mL of added liquid can cause herniation in young adults
Small infants with unfused skulls has more room
Edema
Hemorrhage
Tumor
Hydrocephalus
You can adapt initially by compressing the amount of CSF and venous system
Problem arise if the brain needs to shift
The end result of too much pressure?
The brain shifts to equalize pressure
Even a slight shift can push it against something hard to bruise it
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