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3342 Vitamin and mineral overview.docx

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Pharmacology 4630A
Tom Haffie

Vitamin and mineral overview  Vitamins mention in questions: MVM, vit D, C, calcium, vit E, iron, B12, (note: how omega 3 is not a vitamin + mineral its a specialty supplement)  Calcium: is the most abundant mineral in the body –over 99% of the body’s calcium supply is found inthe bones and teeth to support their structure. Calcium is also crucial for proper muscle function, nerve transportation and hormonal secretion. Food high in calcium include milk and milk alternatives, dark leafy greens, and canned salmon or sardines (Health Canada eng.php)  Vitamin D: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption to build strong bones and teeth. When vitamin D levels are inadequate this cause blood levels of calcium and phosphorus to decrease resulting in calcium being leached out from the bones in order to maintain stable blood concentrations. Thus deficiency in vitamin D or calcium can lead to rickets in children, osteomalacia (softening of the bones) or osteoporosis (fragile bones) in adults. Major sources of vitamin D from food are fortified including milk and margarine. However vitamin D does not always come from the diet as Vitamin D can be synthesized using energy from UV light of the sun. Populations most in need of a vitamin D supplement include anyone over the age of 50 years old and infants who are breast fed. (Health Canada - )  Vitamin C: is an antioxidant needed for growth and repair of tissues in all parts of the body. Populations who may be in need of a vitamin C supplement include: smokers, individuals who are subjected to second hand smoke, and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding (Vitamin C:  The primary function of Vitamin E is to act as an antioxidant. Vitamin E protects the cell membranes from oxidation, enhances immune function, and improves the absorption of st vitamin A. True vitamin E deficiencies are uncommon in humans (1 year foods). Premature babies of very low birth weight may be deficient in vitamin E as well as individuals with fat-malabsorption disorders. Individuals with Crohn’s disease, cystic fibrosis, or an inability to secrete bile from the liver sometimes require water soluble
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