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Lecture

lecture5.pdf

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Department
Philosophy
Course
Philosophy 1200
Professor
Eric Desjardins
Semester
Fall

Description
Welcome to lecture #5! I Review I End of chapter 2 Clarification regarding the assignment (due this Wednesday!) I You can rephrase premises and conclusion, but make sure we can tell where you got them in the text. I In case of doubt, highlight/annotate the text. Review: Interpretation I Words, sentences, and entire texts are sometimes not easy to interpret. I There are many factors to be aware of, including: I Context I Emphasis I Sentence structure I Function Review: Sense and reference I The sense (or meaning) of a word: what it connotes, the idea it evokes, what you need to understand in order to understand the word I The reference (or denotation) of a word: the thing or class of things that the word stands for, picks out, or refers to. Review: Is Hesperus the same as Phosphorus? I The words “Hesperus” and “Phosphorus” both refer to Venus Review: Is Hesperus the same as Phosphorus? I The words “Hesperus” and “Phosphorus” both refer to Venus I However, they have different senses because this question is not trivial: I “Is Phosphorus the same as Hesperus?” Review: Definitions I Reportive definition: a definition that states the standard usage (meaning) of a word I What is a half course? A one-term course (14 weeks). Review: Definitions I Reportive definition: a definition that states the standard usage (meaning) of a word I What is a half course? A one-term course (14 weeks). I Stipulative definition: a definition that introduces a new meaning for a word. I Argument: arguments are sets of statements that claim that one or more of these statements, called the premises, support another of them, called the conclusion. Review: Definitions I Reportive definition: a definition that states the standard usage (meaning) of a word I What is a half course? A one-term course (14 weeks). I Stipulative definition: a definition that introduces a new meaning for a word. I Argument: arguments are sets of statements that claim that one or more of these statements, called the premises, support another of them, called the conclusion. I Essentialist definition: a definition that aims to capture the essence of something I What is freedom? Defining words I Method 1: Genus-species Defining words I Method 1: Genus-species I A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out any effective procedure Defining words I Method 1: Genus-species I A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out any effective procedure I Genus: machine Defining words I Method 1: Genus-species I A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out any effective procedure I Genus: machine I A machine is a system of interacting parts assembled to serve a certain function Defining words I Method 1: Genus-species I A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out any effective procedure I Genus: machine I A machine is a system of interacting parts assembled to serve a certain function I Genus: system Defining words I Method 1: Genus-species I A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out any effective procedure I Genus: machine I A machine is a system of interacting parts assembled to serve a certain function I Genus: system I A system is a set of entities and their relations Defining words I Method 1: Genus-species I A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out any effective procedure I Genus: machine I A machine is a system of interacting parts assembled to serve a certain function I Genus: system I A system is a set of entities and their relations I Genus: set of entities Defining words I Method 2: Ostention Defining words I Method 2: Ostention I Here’s a whiteboard Defining words I Method 2: Ostention I Here’s a whiteboard I Here’s freedom Defining words I Method 2: Ostention I Here’s a whiteboard I Here’s freedom I Where did you point? Defining words I Method 2: Ostention I Here’s a whiteboard I Here’s freedom I Where did you point? I Here’s a vehicle Defining words Defining words I Method 3: by synonym I “Effulgent” means the same as “radiant” Defining words I Method 3: by synonym I “Effulgent” means the same as “radiant” I Method 4: operation I A genius is anyone who scores over 140 on a standard IQ test Defining words I Method 3: by synonym I “Effulgent” means the same as “radiant” I Method 4: operation I A genius is anyone who scores over 140 on a standard IQ test I Method 5: contextual I “This argument has logical strength” means the sa
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