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Western University
Philosophy 2020
William Fisher

Oct 15Assessing Reportive 3Too broad AND too narrowEx A pencil is an instrument used for writing wordsToo broad PenToo narrow Drawing pencils4 CircularThethe infinite article Ex Surgeon a person who performs surgeryThis is circular because surgery is used to describe the meaning of surgeon5 ObscureA marathon is long foot raceIt doesnt say how long it is Linguistic AmbiguityAmbiguous Sentence one which has more than one quite precise meaningsEx Bill gave Bobs skis to his sisterThis sentence can be think in two waysVague Sentence one that lacks a precise meaningsEx Applicants must have a diploma in early childhood care or equivalent experience It is uncertain what the equivalent experiences isTypes of Ambiguity1Referentialwhen a word or phrase could in the context of a sentence refer to 2 or more properties or thingsEx Smith was a big opera starThe big is ambiguous because we dont know if he is BIG or his fame is big1ab Collective and Distributive Use1a Distribute when a term is used to say something about each and every member of a groupExOur university has a large wrestling team It is unclear if the team is large or the member is large1b Collective when a term refers to a property of a group as a wholeEx The boys had a drinkwe dont know if all boys had drinks or all boys had a drinkUseMentionEx Tom is a great quarterback UseWe are using the word TomEx Tom has three letters MentionThe word is just refereeing to the word itself thus it is mentionEx The joy of sex costs 24 and The joy of sex cost 24When you putyou are mentioning it where as if no you are using it Ex Tell me instances in this sentence where the word word is being used as a word or when a word is being mentionedndthstndrdYou have toin the 2 word and 4 word 1 word is used 2 word is mentioned 3 thword is used 4 word is mentioned Intension vs ExtensionIntensionthe meaning or connotation of a term the attributes belonging to all and only objects to which the term refersEx N Q Rall the students in this class N natural number Extension the collection of objects to which the term applies Ex Bowen Rik person Aall the people in classAssessing Stipulative and Essential DefinitionsEx Weapon defined as anything that an be used to inflict harm on another personIt is too broad because anything can be make weapon and also too narrow because a gun can kill animal but not a person
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