Philosophy 1020 Lecture Notes - Ontological Argument, Cybernetics, Allah

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The Cosmological Argument
Cosmological means having to do with the study of the world or universe
<Greek kosmos= world, universe
Unlike the ontological argument which is bases on consideration about a concept, these
arguments proceed from considerations about the world
3. Aquinas' Five Ways
September 20, 2011
0. Some history and other introductory matters
Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)
1. The First Way: the argument from change
a) The argument
Whatever is moved is moved by another.
This cannot go to infinity.
Therefore, there is a first mover.
b) A problem with the First Way: why not an infinite chain?
The scholastic idea of “motion”: change
The world is not infinitely old
2. The Second Way: the argument from causation
a) The argument
Things have efficient causes.
Nothing can be the cause of itself.
The chain of causes cannot go back to infinity.
Therefore, there is a first cause.
b) A problem with the Second Way: ambiguity of "first"
If you remove the first cause you remove the subsequent effect
The firsts 2 first‟s means earlier; the second 2 means “preceded” (in the
passage)
He is arguing that because a finite stretch of a causal chain has a first cause,
it follows that the whole causal cause chain must have a first cause
But this does not follow
-it is like arguing that because every finite stretch of time has a last moment,
time itself
There is equivocation on the world first
A Note on the Argument
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Document Summary

Cosmological means having to do with the study of the world or universe. Unlike the ontological argument which is bases on consideration about a concept, these arguments proceed from considerations about the world: aquinas" five ways. September 20, 2011: some history and other introductory matters. Thomas aquinas (1225-1274: the first way: the argument from change, the argument. The world is not infinitely old: the second way: the argument from causation, the argument. The chain of causes cannot go back to infinity. Therefore, there is a first cause: a problem with the second way: ambiguity of first The firsts 2 first s means earlier; the second 2 means preceded (in the. If you remove the first cause you remove the subsequent effect passage) He is arguing that because a finite stretch of a causal chain has a first cause, it follows that the whole causal cause chain must have a first cause.

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