Racism consists in: belief in at least 2 of 3 propositions, a disposition. Some may be fated not to be good at certain things. Appiah compares this second type of racism to kantian morality/utilitarianism that insinuates we are all morally equal and requires a sense of impartiality that is not found within intrinsic racism. To be anti racist is to deny something along these lines. To exhibit racial prejudice (to pre-judge and be hasty in an inference): a tendency to assent to false propositions, both moral and theoretical about races. This shows that racism is a kind of ideology, rather than a theory (notice the ism ) Racists typically believe certain things and are disposed to view the world in a certain way that may not always be disputable through con icting evidence. Paradigms set the context in which theories are created.