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Lecture 7

Philosophy 1130F/G Lecture 7: Nov 4th Hume 2 .docx

Course Code
PHIL 1130F/G
Leslie Barker

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Big Idea’s
Nov 5th 2014
Hume’s Problem of Induction
The problem became the central philosophical issue
We’ve seen 1000 ravens, all of them are black, this leads you to think all ravens
are black
We’ve seen 100 ravens, all of them are back, therefore, the next raven I see will
be black
The sun has risen every morning as long as we know, therefore, the sun will rise
Project an old pattern onto a new one
Although, this reasoning may not be strong, but its the core of our knowledge,
empirical evidence is made up of this
Arguments like these are totally unjustified, yes uncertain, but mostly unjustified
Hume says there are basically 2 sorts of knowledge we can have and they’re both
supported by 2 different kinds of reasoning
Divides into those things we know for certain and those we know out of
Eg. 2 + 2 = 4 (certain) my fridge is in my kitchen now (probability)
These idea’s concern what Hume calls relations of ideas
Try denying the claim then see what happens
Beliefs about: relation of ideas, certain, provable by method of contradiction by
denying those claims
All bachelors are unmarried
Deny: therefore, not all bacholors are unmarried
Some bachlors are married, therefore, some unmarried men are married
Matters of Fact things are sometimes
Uncertain (probable)
Justified by experience
Only 2 ways to justify belief:
Reasoning’s about Matter of Fact (we know this stuff is really important, because
it’s the sciences, how is it really justified?)
Reasoning about Relations of Ideas
Anything that isn’t justifiable by either of these methods, is not justifiable
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