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Philosophy 2065F/G Lecture Notes - The Foundations, Cesare Borgia, Amor Fati

Course Code
PHIL 2065F/G

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Friedrich Nietzsche
God is Dead
“The greatest new event- that ‘God is Dead’, that belief in the
Christian God is no longer credible- is already beginning to cast
shadows across Europe.”
-A belief in nothing
-With God the world has meaning, but without God the world is
-Without God, there is no objective being to which everything is
measured. All morality becomes relative to us.
-The declarations that god is dead says there is no objective value. Any
objective value is that which we created. Truth is also relative,
therefore there is no truth. Evil then becomes a matter of perspective
depending on how it relates to the individual. There is no God that sets
the standard.
A New Beginning
-“’God is Dead’ implies for Nietzsche a new understanding of the world
without beginning and without a goal. There is no goal/meaning
objectively. There is of course morality, but everything is what we have
created for the world, not God.
-‘Nothing is true’ and ‘all is allowed.’ The foundations of morality is
-There is no God, therefore anything is allowed. There is no objective
morality, no punishment or reward for what is right or wrong.
Slave Morality
-Nietzsche dismisses the moralizing ontology and the ontologizing
morality. God in creation, molds the world after his image. This places
a value into the ontology itself. “Trees are good BECAUSE God created
them.” Any value that anything has is a value that we place in them,
not God. There is no intrinsic value.
-The dualism is the problem. It turns us away from life. This dualism
makes us look to God when we should be looking at ourselves for
-Christian morality takes the initiative away from us by having
someone (religion) else tells us what we ought to do.
-There are no moral phenomena, only interpretations of phenomena.
-Master morality vs. Slave morality. Christian morality is a slave
morality. It values love for others, pity, selflessness. It is the
perspective of the weak. The things that are of value to the weak
become virtues. Master morality values power, nobility, strength, and
egoism. What is good in the slave morality is evil in the master
morality and vice versa.
Beyond Good and Evil
-All morality, also morality beyond good and evil, implies some form of
tyranny against ‘nature’ since there is no intrinsic morality in nature.
This is necessary
-It is a strong individual who can create values.
-Cesare Borgia is preferred to a Christian. Someone who takes charge
of the world and forms morality in his own image is preferred to
someone who is ‘weak’. Hitler is an individual who has formed his own
moral perspectives and has affected how we perceive the world and
certain values. Although his actions weren’t good, he molded values.
There is nothing objectively bad about his actions, but we place
historical value to bad on his actions.
-“The Ubermensch is the goal and meaning of the world.”, The
Ubermensch is the person who has formed the world in his/her image.
“Human being must be overcome.”
-“All beings so far have created something beyond themselves; and do
you want to be the ebb of this great flood and even go back to the
beast rather than overcome man? What is the ape to man? A
laughingstock or a painful embarrassment. And man shall be just that
for the overman: a laughingstock or a painful embarrassment.” The
ubermensche looking back on humans being run by their slave
-Jesus is no longer the Son of God since there is no God, rather an
Ubermensch which extreme influence on the world. He formed his
moral ideas and his followers have a slave mentality since they follow
Jesus as opposed to forming their own thoughts.
The Eternal Recurrence
-“What, if some day or night a demon were to steal after you into your
loneliest loneliness and say to you: ‘This life as you now live it and
have lived it, you will have to live once more and innumerable times
more’… Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and
curse the demon who spoke thus? Or have you once experienced a
tremendous moment when you would have answered him: ‘You are a
god and never have I heard anything more divine.’
-“My formula for human greatness is amor fati: that one wants to have
nothing different, not forward, not backward, not in all eternity. Not
merely to bear the necessary—but to love it.”
The Will to Power
-The forming principle of the world is the will to power This applies to
all parts of life (science, politics, etc.)
there is no absolute, so we set standards but these standards will
always be subject to peoples wills, which will always have an affect on
what we define as good, evil, moral, right, wrong, …
eg. A father and son. When we take away the father, it is time for the
son to grow up and act like a father, taking charge of their life.