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Lecture 5

W5L1.doc


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 2203E
Professor
Charles Middleton
Lecture
5

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Week 5 Lecture 1
LOCKE
Locke has a different style in answering them as opposed to answering philosophical
questions
EQUALITY
Hobbes says we are all equal in the state of nature, Locke agrees but he's not entirely
sure, says there may be natural distinctions in the state of nature, some may be born
with natural inferiority or superiority
we can apply Lockes liberalism that we are all equal by nature to feminism, dont we
have a duty to bring out natural equalities in societies
thought that a leader is divinely governing, approved of by god, or by a natural capaci-
ty that he has. A natural superiority will be the same thing as a divinely superior individ-
ual
Locke thinks we're all equal because we are Gods property
Locke is a big property guy, part of the reason for this is because we are in a sense
Gods property and we have a duty to understand ourselves as submission to Gods
property, we must submit to the divine authority.
At Lockes time in Europe there was a lot of capital to be acquired, Locke thinks we
need to set down terms to understand the notion of property and how one can come to
own and or transfer property justly through inheritance and so forth
makes the move from equality to property but because we are gods property we do
not have the right to treat others as our property because we are someone else's prop-
erty, gods, so therefore we are all equal
natural law: we have no right to commit suicide because our live is integral to harm
Gods property, just like one has no right to harm someone else's property
the right of punishment: we start from a position that we are all equals without any
right to ownership, reason is precisely when there is an injustice in the state of nature
that comes contrary to reason
in transgressing the law of nature the offender declares himself to live by another rule
than that of reason or common equity
because were all equal if anyone has the right of punishment than we all do in the
state of nature, we only have the right to proportional punishment, you can only punish
so much as the laws of nature are respected, such as retribution
Locke's state of nature isn't as nasty brutish and short as Hobbes. For Locke people
do keep their contracts because it is reasonable to do so in the SON
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