Temple March 14th
Social control/ Counter reformation readings for next week.
Celibacy – sacrifice of self for a focus of Christ. The sacrifice is what makes the clergy different/special.
It provides the unique relationship with god. Which allows the ability to provide sacraments. Therefore
Church can never give this up.
What have the catholics been doing and how did they respond to the reformation?
Many historians disagree about the catholic response and this can be seen in the different labels used.
Counter Reformation: Pure response, making reforms to the church. Reflexive. Such reforms would not
have occurred if not for the protestants. This is a term coined by protestant historians. Coined by
vanRunke. The process of catholic reform only started 1st third of 16th century. Around 1517-1650. There
is only a short period of reform. There is negativity towards this term. This reform is half hearted and is
all because of the protestants. The catholics did not like this.
Catholic Reformation: This is a term coined by the Catholics. The efforts of reforming the abuses of the
Church were occurring independent of protestants and organically within the catholic church. Catholic
historians wanted to argue that protestant and catholic reformation were separate responses but still
related. This response had its common roots in the medieval world. How did they make this argument.
1347 Plague strikes Europe. In response to the plague people turned to their faith. There was renewed
focus on prayer meditation and the sacraments. The laity wanted to make their faith personal and
reconnect to the church. Protestant and Catholic reformation is a response to this. The argument is that
Catholic reformation predates the protestant reformation and separate. The motivation for reformation
comes from within the church. Medieval world - 17th century. There is a long period of reform.
Catholic Renewal: (most recent label) The notion was that what was needed was not reform but renewal.
The church had drifted from its core doctrine and it did need new things it just needed to get back on
track. It reclaims its medieval doctrines. The argument is made in context to the council of Trent. Trent
enforced old laws.
Each of these labels has its strength and weakness. True in some cases and not in others. This is a good
exam question. Temple sees it as a counter reformation. He says at the end of the day this label holds the
best. It doesn't always work but mostly.
Spain and Italy: Two places protestantism go no where.
Spain is led by devoutly catholic monarchs, the Habsburgs. Charles V (King of Spain and the HRE)
They have the sense of themselves as the champions of catholicism.
On the eve of reformation the spanish church is functioning relatively well.
France and Germany were the heart of abuses take place.
In spain this is not the case and it is firmly under the control of state.