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Lecture 2

Week 2.docx

Course Code
PHIL 3420F/G
Angela White

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Physical Geography 09/16/2013
Physical Geography of Canada
- 5 basic elements
Vegetation has a greater impact on soil than soil does on vegetation.
Rock Types (3)
igneous – cools from a molten state
very hard, weathering to erosion
often contains mineral
metamorphic – application of extreme heat and pressure
Preexisting rock changing its nature
I.e Limestone (s) into marble (m)
sedimentary – particles of pre-existing rock
Created when existing rock is exposed to weathering(breaks into smaller pieces) [erosion is a process
of transport. Comes after weathering]
Known for unique resource fossil fuels (coal, oils, gas) found exclusively in (s)
Major elements of North America
1.) Canadian Shield – igneous and metamorphic
Core of the continent, Oldest rock in North America, rest of continent build on shield. Very stable so no
2.) platform rocks – sedimentary – Interior Plains
3.) folded belts – igneous and metamorphic – mountains
On the west, mountains growing by collisions of plates making up the northwest, young on west, old on
east, middle innuitian mountains
4.) coastal plain – Arctic coastline near mouth of Mackenzie River
Made from material weathered and eroded from Canadian shield and mountains
Very small area in north

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- physiographic regions are based on surface features which, in turn, largely reflect geology
-Describes or reflects what’s beneath
1.) Canadian Shield
Rugged, Problematic for transportation, multitude of small lakes and rivers
2.) Interior Plains including the Western Plains and Prairies, the Great Lakes Lowlands and the St.
Lawrence Lowlands
Frontenac access
3.) Western Mountains
4.) Appalachian Uplands
Hudson bay lowlands, low lined area of exposed old Seabed.
Hill that Brescia sits on is a glaciation hill. Arga Moraine
- major shaping force
- last glaciation – the Wisconsin
- furthest extent – Ohio R./Missouri R. in U.S.
- retreat from Southern Ontario – 10-15,000 Before. Present.
- continental and alpine
Climate (weather[short term atmospheric conditions] over time)
- moisture -
wet west – orographic
dry “middle” – convectional
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