Philosophy 3820F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Individualism, Equal Opportunity, Justification For The State

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Day 5
Public v. Private Goods
Public
Things like air
Public health
Deals with diseases that are highly contagious, using governmental
means to reduce these factors
Private
Money, personal health, belongings etc.
Public evils
Highly contagious diseases
Environmentally related diseases
Distributive justice
When people think about distributive justice they think about the private
goods and not the public
Social contract theories of the legitimacy of government
What makes government legitimate?
Consent
State of Nature theories
Locke
Starts with the no laws ideas, but thinks there are some natural rights
beyond the self defense
He believes there is a right to property
When you mix your labour with a thing it becomes yours
There is property before there is government
The difference is that people will not be willing to give up their property
rights when they put governments in place
Hobbs
The right of self defense
Where there is no government people will just be in constant mayhem
Absolute monarch will make laws and enforce them, people will accept
this so long as the authority will provide security to them
People will give up their freedom fro the sake of security
Reality (the Contractarian Hypothesis)
Not leaving is consent to the state
Leaving is often very difficult to do
Poor countries
Some people may be poor because of where they are born
Rawls
Maximum equal civil liberates (political)
(Economic)
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Document Summary

Deals with diseases that are highly contagious, using governmental means to reduce these factors. When people think about distributive justice they think about the private goods and not the public. Social contract theories of the legitimacy of government. Starts with the no laws ideas, but thinks there are some natural rights beyond the self defense. He believes there is a right to property. When you mix your labour with a thing it becomes yours. There is property before there is government. The difference is that people will not be willing to give up their property rights when they put governments in place. Where there is no government people will just be in constant mayhem. Absolute monarch will make laws and enforce them, people will accept this so long as the authority will provide security to them. People will give up their freedom fro the sake of security. Not leaving is consent to the state.

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