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Philosophy 2043F/G
Louis Charland

Philosophy 2044G Wednesday March 19 Personality Disorders Final Exam • You won’t be tested on the essay topic articles, but on the class topics and articles • You should be able to talk about the conclusion of the article, reason for that conclusion (about 60%) and your own thoughts on the article and its conclusion (30%) • Always provide concrete examples when you can • The best way to prepare for the exam is to dissect the articles and have a clear idea of the argument and what your opinion is Closing notes on addiction: • Informed consent is a relatively recent development following the types of medical experiments that the Nazis did on Jews and others in concentration camps o In Ontario, we have the Health Care Consent Act that lays out how consent is to be sought in the health care sciences • Decision making capacity is a term used in clinical or medical research, whereas mental competence is used in legal contexts o eg. someone may be deemed “not criminally responsible” because they do not have mentally competence to make a rational decision o There is debate as to what is included in these terms and what they mean (in regards to the different aspects we talked about last class: understand, appreciate, reason, and exercise a choice. o In order for the person to be deemed capable, they have to understand the information – therefore someone with Alzheimer’s or a baby can’t understand the information • Appreciation is the hardest term to dissect o They don’t even mention the term in the U.K. o Even if it isn’t mentioned, that doesn’t mean it isn’t there (they may just not call it ‘appreciation’) • Reasoning – the person can weigh the risks and benefits of participating • Example: Does an alcoholic being admitted to a treatment facility understand and is able to reason when signing off on the contract they agree to abide by? o Denial is one of the main symptoms of alcoholism – that means they don’t appreciate that they are an alcoholic • Example: Someone with severe depression will likely weigh the risks and benefits (reasoning) in a negative way • *Make sure you stick to the definitions in the text to classify these 4 elements (terms are used interchangeably in various sources) Personality Disorders • Personality disorders are disorders of personality while mental disorders are disorders of thinking or feeling (we have to distinguish between the two) • When the axis system was abolished in the DSM V, the disorders all ended up together (and as a consequence makes the personality disorders seem as serious as the mental disorders) • Criteria for General Personality Disorders: o An enduring pattern of inner experience and behaviour that deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual’s culture  The way that they feel and behave is abnormal when compared to their culture  2 or more of the following: • Cognition o Ways of perceiving and interpretation the self, other people, and events • Affectivity • Interpersonal functioning • Impulse control • Mental disorders can start anytime in life, but personality disorders start in adolescence or early adulthood • DSM V repeats the organization of the DSM IV, but presents an alternative model o They wanted to present a new model, but there were people who argued against it (there would be chaos in hospitals) o Instead, they used the old model, but inserted their own model at the end o Classifications have changed, and you may have been diagnosed for a certain personality disorder under one DSM, but another came along and you no longer fall under the requirements for that disorder • Personality disorders are divided into 3 clusters (Cluster A, B, and C) o Cluster A includes schizotypal personality disorders (reduced capacity for close relationships, cognitive and perceptual distortions, odd beliefs and speech, suspicious and paranoid ideation, lack of close friends…) Cluster B • Histrionic Personality Disorder o Pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention-seeking, beginning by early adulthood o Uncomfortable in situations where they are not the center of attention o Interaction with others is often characterized by inappropriate, sexually seductive, or provocative behaviour o Shallow expression of emotions o Uses physical appearance to draw attention to self o Shows self-dramatization, theatricality o Considers relationships to be more intimate than they actually are o Examples: Miley Cyrus, flashy rappers, Mike Tyson, Charlie Sheen • Narcissistic Personality Disorder o Grandiose sense of self-importance o Expects to be recognized as superior without achievements o Believes they are special and unique, and should only associate with other high-status people o Sense of entitlement o Is interpersonal exploitative (uses other people) o Lacks empathy (this is a question of morality and ethics in our culture)  *Certain moral issues are written into the diagnostic criteria o Unwilling to empathize with the needs of others, is envious of others/believes others are envious of him or her o Examples: Kanye West, Justin Bieber, Simon Cowell • Borderline Personality Disorder o Pattern of unstable and
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