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Jan 20, philosophy.rtf

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Department
Philosophy
Course
Philosophy 2074F/G
Professor
Dean Proessel
Semester
Fall

Description
Jan20 Utilitarianism -Thethesisthat we ought alwaysto maximizeutility, that is, act is right if it"leadsto thebest poss ible balanceof goodconsequencesover badconsequences". "Themorally best alternativeis that which producesthegreatest net utility, whereutility is define din termsof happinessor pleasure". "Weought to dothat which producesthegreatest amount of happinessfor thegreatest number of people". "Quantatitive Utilitariam"? Maximizeutility: whenin your action you bring goodconsequenceover badconsequences. -anyaction canbring consequencesto many people.Thining throughyour action, that your action might bring badconsequenceto somepeople. However, in utilitarianismit is okay to bring some badconsequenceto SOME people.Thekey hereis thebalance. -maximizing utility (like calculas)might involvecomparing badandgoodconsequences. -by badconsequences: pain -by goodconsequences: pleasure -theideaof "producesthegreatest amount of happinessfor thegreatest number of people" is impl ict in theideaof maximizeutility. -Idealy, everyonewill receivepleasure.Whenroviding morepleasurethanpain, it is still theutilit arismidea, sowe should gothat way. -It is about outcomes. Negativeresponsibility: you areresponsiblefor what you doandalsowhat you did not do. In utili tarism, you arestill responsiblefor theoutcomethat you did not dosomething. Thewholepoint: you areresponsiblefor theoutcomes Attractionsof thistheory: -It is really acalculus. Input information into a"machine", it generatesoutcomes.According to th emachine, your own opinionsor subjectivity is completely irrelevant. It is completely objectivet heory. "It is what themachineis designto explain" -if not maximizining theutility, i should not act-theidea Impartiality: objectivescientific -being egalitorianism (all count equalily) -How i maximizemy utility. Should i universalizetheconsequence? -Nobody countsmorethananyother else. -Doesmy action maximizetheutility?Doesanyonecount for more?(friendsVS strangers,I vsot her)-this ideashould befactoredout. Becauseeveryonecount equalily. -thepleasureandpain of everyoneis equal. -it should nor priviligepeople. #action?---consequences?Determinehow peopleeffectedby my consequences,everyonecounts equalily. Everyonetriesto maximizetheutility. Two foundations: Normative: maximizeutility Psychological: utility definedin termsof pleasureor pain Jeremy Bentham "Naturehasplacedmankind under thegovernanceof two sovereign masters, pain andpleasure. It is for themaloneto point out what we ought to do. Ontheonehand, thestandard of right andwro ng, on theohter chain of causesa
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