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Philosophy 2200F/G
Charles Middleton

EMP WEEK 1 LECTURE 3 MEDITATIONS 3 • all descartes has managed to do by this is to say that his and only his existence is the only certain truth • trying to establish god's existence • types of thought, solipsism the idea that you are the only thing that exists and every- thing else around you is just made up or imagination • i am, i exist, is true only in virtue that because it is clear to him makes it true to him • wants to decide from his own mind what is true and what is false; his existence as a self evident proposition is clear and distinct to him. he becomes unable to doubt it by the clear and distinctiveness of his perception of his existence • clear and distinct ideas by virtue of what they are are therefore certain truths, al other ideas are subject to doubt and therefore cannot be certain • metaphysical project; constructing a certain kind of world that only has him in it, cre- ates metaphysical and epistemological problems as well, it is not a political world or a world many would find pleasing to live in • science at this time was interesting to philosophers, a basis for science is what was being sought at this time • general rule now, clear and distinct ideas that by virtue of this are true TYPES OF THOUGHT • ideas are the units that combine together to create thought • simple ideas are particulars, god trees unicorns that chair (particular things, don't nec- essarily have to be things that you sense, you cant sense god) • compound ideas - volitions - modes of thought like willing, affirming • judgements - i exist, the sky is purple; whether they're true or not judgement is a type of idea • judgements are false when entirely derived from the senses • volitons are true • simple ideas are per se true, they are true in themselves. That doesn't mean that the idea of unicorns are a real thing or the idea of a unicorn is in itself true - the idea of the simple thing is true, however there can be a struggle when correlating an idea to a real object that makes something untrue • material falsity - simple ideas - they are true in so far as its an idea, material falsity makes it so that things that appear to be things but aren't really - so illusions • empiricism - you can derive knowledge from experience, senses play a part in devel- oping your experiences. knowledge is the product of a set of experiences • Descartes says even though they play a part they cannot make something true you must apply the rational mind to your senses in order to make something true. our sens- es alone are an impetus for true knowledge, we are inevitably seeing something false when we rely solely on the senses to form an opinion, this is the opposite of rationalism • Simple ideas are innate (something that is almost biological to who you are as a per- son), invented and adventitious (constructed from something external in your mind), the source of your ideas can be all of these things • Simple Ideas are deconstructed into substances, modes and accidents • substances are particular things, unicorns, god, etc because they are indivisible and because they are not predicated on something, they are the thing that predicates are predicated on For Descartes there a two different kinds of substances, this is what makes him a du- • alist - because he believes they are bodies and minds materialists believe there is only matter • • idealists believe that everything happens in the mind • accidents for Descartes - predicates of a substance, 'of' extension or number, but in it- self does not exists • bodies are
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