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Philosophy 2200F/G
Charles Middleton

WEEK 2 LECTURE 4 FIRST DIALOGUE - LOCKE PRIMARY QUALITIES – EXTENSION, MOTION AND SOLIDITIY  Primary quality that is sensed by more than one sense, you can see or feel it moving. – extension, motion and solidity  Berkeley argues that from a different perspective motion appears differently, can’t be said to be identified with an external object  Because the realist wants to present a quality that you perceive of the thing as identical of the qualities that thing has – if something is in motion you can have perspectives of different things between individuals  Idea that time is measured by succession of ideas all in a continual pattern – this is our experience  Qualities can be interpreted different from one perspective then for another, proves that there can’t be hard qualities that cause ideas because if they were the same they wouldn’t be perceived differently by different individuals  You can’t perceive the cause of something, you perceive something that you’re sensing not what caused it, the experience of resistance  The sensation of comfort of discomfort, pain or pleasure (secondary qualities) does not lie in the object itself and that’s why you can’t correlate primary and secondary qualities OBJECTIONS  Sensible qualities are different from abstracted absolute qualities that are in here the object  Sensible qualities at describe motion and extension but absolute qualities are abstract, they are abstracted from them, they become what greatness is  Absolute qualities are the qualities that exist in the object and they are distinct from but not different from sensible qualities – they still have an abstract form that we interpret as greatness or swiftness  All you end up talking about is a quality in greatness or swiftness, how can a general quality exist in a particular object? – How is it that a particular chair has a general property in it? A general quality cant appear in a particular object – general qualities strip a particular object of everything sensible , stripping it of its numerical difference – that quality becomes an abstract general thing  You can’t imagine motion in itself – it’s not conceivable and it can’t apply or belong to a particular object. A distinct idea of motion in that it applies to a particular object if it doesn’t have any sensory modes, you can’t just conceive of solidity SUBSTRATUM  If you reduce an object enough by taking it completely apart you end up with underlying matter that can’t be reduced anymore, you give things shape and form but you know that there is stuff underlying it  Substratum must have the quality of extension, underlying formation of stuff. Metaphors all require extension and we’ve already shown that extension is one of the qualities that requires it to exist only in the mind  Substratum spreads under all qualities and is the material that makes us sense everything, you must however have the conception of extension already in order for substratum to exist
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