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Lecture 6


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Western University
Philosophy 2200F/G
Charles Middleton

WEEK 6 LECT 2  QUIZ RESULTS – the sufficiency rule in the SON, you can acquire what believe is sufficient to fulfill your needs - Problem comes with the introduction of money which is when you exchange what you produce on the land for something that is not perishable, you don’t violate any sort of spoilage rule, sufficiency rule is with the introduction of money - Knowing the right to self preservation – we know this from reason, natural laws that reason allows us to recognize, through God or revelation - Source of knowledge that is our right to acquire knowledge  Every state that has been acquired through conquest are in the state of nature for Locke  Way of guaranteeing whatever form of government sovereignty is always acting in the favour of the majority – you can transfer sovereignty to authorize it in the form of one person – Hobbes  Rousseau – sovereignty is always lies or located in the collective group itself, the association that authorized the social contract in the first place; any law expressed by the general will in the sovereign can be overridden by the sovereign – it is the supreme authority that is indivisible ROUSSEAU – SOVEREIGNTY  There’s a mistake in thinking that parts of government acts together, everything is subordinate to the sovereign  The general will can authorize or delineate to parts of government but these functions are always subordinate to what the sovereign is  No acts of the general will which can be unlawful or unjust because it expresses itself in a lawful and universal way  It is not identical to a referendum, popular decision even if they are unanimous is not the general will FORM OF GENERAL WILL  What is in fact in the interests of the people, not what the people think is in their best interests  What is in fact in the interests of the general will is always right and just LIMITS OF THE SOVEREIGN  The sovereign is a supreme authority that overrides any decree or law that it enacts itself or that others may enacted on them – not many limits on sovereignty  Any impositions on any individuals that the sovereign expresses the will to impose on any subject in the community must be useful to the community – Rousseau is interested in maximizes or reconciling individual freedom with the authority of the state  The individual freedoms and rights are important and the limits on sovereignty is limited to what is a concern for that community  Rousseau isn’t a liberal (can’t do whatever you’d like so long as it doesn’t hurt anyone else_ he is a republican (citizens in every community is virtuous) – anything that doesn’t concern the community, the sovereign has no authority to act upon LAWS  Universal laws, can’t apply to particulars but they apply universally – to everyone for all time  Must be general limit on freedoms, or general restriction to be defined  Laws must benefit individuals mutually. The laws cannot be just in the benefit to the government but must be in benefit to all people. One individual is fighting for the whole as much as the whole is fighting for the individual, everything must be beneficial to all people PRACTICAL POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY  We’re all born into freedom and general equality in nature, equality isn’t realized without government – none of us are born in nature with more than anyone else  Freedom however is the emphasis because we are only truly free in the state of nature, because we have legitimate governmental structure due to the inconveniences we have in the SON  Need t
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