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Philosophy 2203E
Charles Middleton

WEEK 2 LECT 2 LOCKES EMPIRICISM • power of empiricism to promote knowledge IDEA - MATTER OF THOUGHT • empiricism- greek word emporia, can also mean a trial or an attempt of something. Locke is more modest in what our minds are capable of doing. Subtle things you may not easily see. • wants to de-centre the idea that we as humans are capable of just on our own coming up with certain kinds of knowledge. we provide the means for certainty, its all in our minds, everything out there can't be trusted but in our minds we can rationalize things - locke says we know our limitations of rational thought • reluction in descartes to acknowledge limitations of external world, Locke wants to un- derstand the limitations in secondary qualities • ideas are the matter that make up our thoughts, perceptions in our minds. • Locke agrees in dualism, ideas in the minds as distinct not made up of material things but produced from them. our ideas all come from material things • ideas are produced, not from birth, caused by sensation or by reflection. our sensa- tions can familiarity and extraction can produce or reflection • our sensations can be produced by primary or secondary qualities • reflection on an idea that causes another idea to erupt from it, willing or doubting, or thinking these come from reflection on the mind on simple ideas • combo ideas, rising from a combination of reflections, simple ideas can be pleasures, pain • all original ideas are simple ideas, all complex ideas are relations of simple ideas. ideas can only come from sensation or reflection, there are no innate ideas or ideas that originate from anything other than sensation or reflection • our mind is a blank slate, Locke says we have a faculty that allows us to sense and over time it allows us to organize these sensations, no ideas hardwared into us • sensations alone can generate simple ideas, has a reluctance to discuss potential ideas • without being exposed to a variety of things, your ideas are sometimes limited. without simple ideas you cant form complex ideas • responding to the notion that the soul is always thinking, that is the nature of the soul • a thinking soul that is not aware of his soul, or an unconscious thought in sleep, Locke says we don't have thinking in the sense of ideas until we have sensations. because we cannot have thoughts without experience complex ideas can be generated from abstraction • • we take a number of particular things or ideas and we abstract them to something common, common aspect of justice, abstract idea that we derive from imaginary and real relations that are justice • the ideal of justice is abstract, we apply it to situations • ideas that suppose or require two separate other things that are being juxtaposed and compared, or the abstract idea of inferiority is a relation of two things, this is inferior to that is a complex idea derived from setting two ideas side by side • positive and negative ideas, or positive ideas that are generated from absences, a shadow the sun behind someone and you see your shadow, it is a thing - its a positive thing but it doesn't have a positive cause. like we have a positive idea of a shadow but it comes from a privation of sun which is technically a negative thing • the color black, we can see it but really what we see is the absence of color then there are negative ideas. silence is the absence of sound, it isn't a positive idea. • we think of silence as the absence of something, the absence of sound. and yet it is an idea and its something you can notice • what we get from this is ideas are separate from what causes them. there can be a material thing that causes them and a completely different idea emerge QUALITIES • qualities are the power that an object has to produce an idea, can be an external pow- er something has on t
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