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Lecture 6


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Western University
Philosophy 2203E
Charles Middleton

WEEK 6 LECTURE 4 INSUBORDINATION  Two giant events in the period that motivate this period were the discovery of the new world and protestant reformation, both ideas repel against the established authority  Insubordination of catholic hegemony, drove philosophers to start questioning the authority of the established view  Odd idea of possession that relates to the dispossession of the aboriginals land by the colonials: question of how do we come to have things if we come from nothing – the answer for Locke is by mixing ourselves with the world in an empirical experiment, we come to have ideas because of how we experience things, same goes for property  Ideological Subordination - Ideological: seek a firm ground on which our ideas can be established or set, challenging a church doctrine leads to Cartesian doubt or Lockian empiricism, top down authoritative subordination - Political: French revolution and English civil war, instability. Political insubordination of the ruling belief is what drives the theory of social contracts to establish civil authority in regions. Discovery of new world was a great discovery by ignoring the perceived view our science is shaky to a point where we need to challenge our new beliefs - Theories of the origin of society relates to the stories of life and behavior of the native Americans living there in the SON – took on an exaggerated form but that’s where it came from. - What the social contract is like in regards to the SON, pre-socialized, pre Columbian. What benefits one might have in the SON  FETISH THE FIRST PRINCIPLES: foundationalism - Seek to find the foundation of our ideas about civilization or about anything, scientific answers - Trying to rid our way of thinking of all of its bias and corruption and to start from something solid to construct something we know it truthful - Start from something solid you can build something more truthful - What agent will stabilize the rocky foundations –security issues - Descartes move from first principle (I am and I exist) into all other forms, and what keeps it together is honesty – without which Descartes is unable to show the accuracy of the metaphysical world - Even though we all have rational interest there is a shaky foundation to which we need a rational sovereign to solidify, without this the system doesn’t run smoothly - The security of the system is supernatural stabilizing agent – need for security  Collapse into skepticism – all of the attempts at establishing things collapses into skepticism - Descartes attacks things with skepticism and forms good arguments - Repaired with synthetic thought – Marx and Hegel, Kant - synthesis of the ideas of labor and the notion of exchange itself, issuing the value which sometimes something only has value when its being exchanged for something - Kant overcomes skepticism with his synthesis of rationalism and empiricism, Kants idea is that we come to have knowledge through empirical investigation but the world is constituted by the ideas we have in our mind about the world – the nominal world is constituted by our rational mind, beyond that is a world that we don’t need to know anything about – without the idea that the mind is all that there is - Marx and Hegel our identity is secured through our relations with another person;
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