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Lecture 6


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Western University
Philosophy 2701E
Charles Middleton

WEEK 6 LECTURE 3 SOCIAL CONTRACT  HOBBES - everyone is a threat to one another in the social structure, nature of civil government. Nature of government is to protect each other from ourselves and others in the SON - element of coercion, this element is the fundamental means by which the government can fulfill its nature - purpose of government is to put an end to the state of war that exists everywhere for the SON - SOW never  LOCKE - Protect us from our rulers and the sovereign, government or constitution needs to be generated so that the driving force of that contract is to guarantee some sort of protection from an oppressive state, so that we have a way out – so that we have something to appeal to - Popular representations, common idea ubiquitous idea, notion since we cant speak directly to power we need popular representation, to act as a check to the ruling state to limit so that it doesn’t become tyrannical. - Purpose of government is to specifically protect individual liberty and secure property rights, acquire property that has been given through a deity, natural rights need to be guaranteed, secure property rights - SOW Inconvienent and chaotic, unordered mess needs to be organized into a process  ROUSSEAU - Thinks we’re better off without any contract, uncorrupted in our natural pre social condition, - There is some force that motivated us to come together to pool our resources for basic survival - Society corrupts us of our basic nature, unite us under a common idea, common interests - Protect us from a state entity, expression of the general will - Government is to serve the people through which the general will can be expressed, popular expression – direct democratic policy by which it comes together through elections or elected meritocracy - Harmonize the group, emergency requires us to fight together for everyone who is coming as an individual, function of social contract is to harmonize this group of individuals to establish common interest and to make sure common interests are being served. - Noble, romantic notion that describes nobility into when we are naturally free, has to reflect the values and rights that we have in nature, has to do this through coercion in other means in the SOW, tense relationship[s when your freedom is based on your submission, normal and peaceful life otherwise - Enter into a social arrangement that will fix the SOW  Social order in the original SON one of them will be based in social order, social arrangement, half signed onto the contract and half in the SON can’t have this – must be applied universally – not be arbitrary, must fulfill the requirements of universality and it may not be arbitrary  Protection – if there are no threats then there is no reason to enter into the social contract - Of property - Of person – we have a right to self preservation, so we are not disabled by another - Of pursuit – protected  Establish consent, people who authorize whether implicitly or explicitly the state power establishes consent, this state power in all 3 cases the basis for any political arrangement comes out of the consent and authorization  Free riders are the problem, in all 3 cases the social contract makes it rational for all 3 cases to enter into it – consent of the people implies that it is rational or there is some good reason to enter into the contract – it is rational for the individual, more rational that not to sign onto this contract  If they
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