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20. Ryles Behaviourism.docx

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Philosophy 1020
John Thorp

20. Ryle’s Behaviourism Tutorial Readings: Reading 38: Churchland Focus on Pages 316-320 “Functionalism” 1. Radical alternatives: monism 1.1 First radical alternative: idealism 1.2 Second radical alternative: materialism For the last half century or more the reigning idea has been the opposite of Berkeley‟s idea has been the opposite of Berkeley‟s namely materialism, the idea that conscious state are material realities after all 2. Physicalism (Materialism) – contrary to first appearances the only real sort of thing in the world is concrete material or physical things: matter and its properties To put it in another way mental states or events can ben reduced to physical states or events Reduction – the process by which one object is shown to be entirely dispensible in favour of another Any story we tell involving mental properties is entirely tellable without mental properties, but using only physical properties The „Research Program‟ - A practical example of just this type of research - Dr Aiden Owens, the Canadian excellence research chair conducting research at Western right now There have been three main versions of materialism: a) Behaviorism (today) – There are two versions of behaviourism: Radical behaviourism and logical behaviourism Radical: Put forward by John Watson and BF Skinner. Science is an objective public activity it relies on repeatability of experiments and observations. What I find in my lab you should find in yours There cant be a science of the mind or soul, for the simple reason that the mind is NOT A PUBLIC OBJECT Psychology strictly speaking is a contradiction in termsL Psyche = mind or soul Logos = study of science Conscious states exist, but we should never try to make a science concerning them What can we study? We can study behaviour of animals or people We can study stimulus and behaviour of animals We don‟t deny that conscious states exist; we only deny that we can study them scientifically Some radical behavioursists go further than this and actually deny that conscious states exist (Actually John Watson was one of these) … prove it b) The Identity Theory c) Functionalism (tutorials) 3. Behaviourism 3.1 Radical Behaviourism 3.2 Logical Behaviourism Gilbert Ryle 4. Ryle‟s Argument Ryle wants tyo look a
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