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The Argument from Design

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Philosophy 1020
John Thorp

The Argument from Design September-20-12 Three passes The Design Argument Intelligent Design Teleological Argument First pass: Aquinas' Fifth Way The Fifth Way: Governance of the World  Natural bodies act for an end, including natural bodies which lack knowledge or intelligence.  Non-intelligent natural bodies which act for an end must have their action directed by a being endowed with knowledge and intelligence  Therefore, an intelligent being exists by whom all natural being are controlled Note: The difference between unintelligent and non-intelligent.  Unintelligent, they have intelligence they just don’t use it A Question about the Fifth Way  Is it true that acting for an end or purpose requires knowledge and intelligence?  Cybernetics= science of self-governing machines Aquinas' point would be precisely that a cybernetic machine has had a human designer, an intelligent designer. Social insects  Are social insects a case of non-intelligent purposive behaviour?  Are social insects evidence that there must be a supreme intelligence of the world Intelligent Design 2. Second pass: Paley's watch  William Paley: 1743-1805, from England  Rewrote and explained the Fifth Way, he didn't write it  His explanation: you are walking in a field, you find a delicate watch 1. A watch is an elaborate mechanism whose parts serve certain ends 2. We infer that the watch was made by an intelligence watchmaker  It had to be made by someone, so we automatically can assume 3. The universe is also an elaborate mechanism whose parts serve certain ends  The universe is just like the watch 4. Therefore, by analogy, we should infer that the universe was made by an intelligent universe maker (God) Three Criticisms of Paley a. Hume's criticism b. Argument by analogy c. Natural selection A. David Hume 1711-1776, did a lot of work, we will see him again, wrote on a wide range of subjects  'unintelligent design' doesn't think the world is perfect, the creator wasn't overly intelligent  Example: animals eat each other, they should be able to live together wasn't killing each other  You can't use this to argue for a all powerful perfect god, because the world is far was perfect  Example: human eyes aren't perfect, they have blind spots B. Argument by analogy : they are often unreliable  Because two things resemble each other in one respect, they must resemble each other in other respects.  Leaves are complex cellulose structures  Leaves grow on tr
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