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Lecture 5

philosophy lecture 5 - the arguement from design.docx

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Western University
Philosophy 1020
John Thorp

Lecture 5 - The Argument from design 1. First Pass: Aquinas' Fifth Way  Natural bodies act for an end, including natural bodies which lack knowledge or intelligence.  Non-intelligent natural bodies which act for an end must have their action directed by a being endowed with knowledge and intelligence.  Therefore an intelligent being exists by whom all natural things are directed to their end. Question about the Fifth Way:  Is it really true that acting for an end or purpose requires knowledge and intelligence? o Cybernetics?  The science of self-governing machines. Greek word ‘pilot’ o Social Insects?  Are social insects a case of non-intelligent purposive behavior?  Or are social insects evidence that there must be a great designing intelligence behind it 2. Second Pass: Paley's Watch (1743-1805)  Analogy: the watch. There must be an intelligent designer behind the watch. The parts all work together  1. A watch is an elaborate mechanism whose parts serve certain ends  2.we infer that the watch was made by an intelligent watch maker  3. The universe is also an elaborate mechanism whose parts serve certain ends  4. Therefore, by analogy, we should infer that the universe was made by anintelligent universe maker (God) Three Criticisms of Paley: a)David Hume's criticism: unintelligent design (1711-1776)  Not all things are intelligently designed. There are lots of examples of things that could have been designed better (human eye and octopus eye) b) argument by analogy  Because two things resemble each other in one respect, they must relate in other respectcs as well  But argument by analogy is unreliable (=fallacious) Leaves are complex cellulose structures. Leaves grow on trees. Money bills are also complex cellulose structures. Therefore money grows on trees.  Are there any points of disanalogy between the watch and universe?  Well…the watch has an overarching purpose, namely to tell the time, but it is not clear that the universe has an overarching purpose!  We need more content.  The watch on the heath could not have come to be the complex thing that it Is except through the agency of an intelligence watchmaker  Could the universe have come to be except through the a
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