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Philosophy 1020
Cathy Thorpe

Metaphysics & Descartes’Substance Dualism Part 1: Shift from Epistemology to Metaphysics Recall: Epistemology Concerns the Theory of Knowledge -Characteristic of Epistemological Questions: How do we know that ‘P’? -Def. Knowledge Belief & Truth & Justification Metaphysics Concerns Ultimate Existence -Two Main Senses (or Meanings) of Existence: a) Commonsensical Sense of Existence -Everyday use of ‘existence’ b) Ultimate Sense of Existence -Metaphysician’s use of ‘existence’ Examples of Some Metaphysical Questions -Do colours exist? Does time exist? Do natural numbers exist? Note: These questions are asked in the ultimate sense of the word ‘existence’ and not in the everyday sense of the word. The General Metaphysical Question -Q. What is everything constituted of? -Descartes: Substance Dualism: Everything (or every entity) is either a) Thinking Substance (Mind/Soul): Essence = {Thinking, Unextended, No Parts} b) Material Substance (Bodies) Essence = {Extended, Unthinking} Part 2: Descartes’Arguments For Substance Dualism Argument 1:Argument From Involuntary Ideas P1. Ideas from sensory experience are either voluntary or involuntary. P2. If sensory ideas are involuntary, then they arise from things external to minds. P3. Sensory ideas are involuntary. C. ∴ (Therefore), ideas from sensory experience arise from external things. Result: Things external
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