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Department
Philosophy
Course
Philosophy 1020
Professor
John Thorp
Semester
Fall

Description
“Most difficult lecture of the year” * Test will not have any multiple­choice* Short answers 12. Kant 1. State of play, and biographical matters • From reason (Descartes) • From experience (Locke) o Tabula rasa • From both (Kant) o 1724­1804 o Reconciles both sides o Revolutionary thinker o Ethics o Epistemology o Metaphysics o Religion & Aesthetics (Art – what makes things beautiful) 1. Kant's contribution: reconciliation of rationalism and empiricism: “All our knowledge begins with experience, but it does not follow that it all arises  out of experience.” • Reconciliation of rationalism & Empiricism 2. First distinction: a priori and a posteriori a priori knowledge is independent of sense experience a posteriori knowledge is gained by sense experience Examples of a posteriori knowledge: There are eight potatoes in this bag. Today's sunset is orange. Examples of a priori knowledge: propositions of (pure) mathematics,  e.g. 3+5=8 propositions from ordinary understanding,  e.g. "every change must have a cause. 3. The reconciliation of rationalism and empiricism: Even if we were to admit that all our concepts come from sense experience,  some propositions can be known to be true without consulting sense others cannot be known to be true without consulting sense We can know these a priori propositions to be true without consulting experience Admittedly, we got the concepts of 3, of 5, or 8 or change or cause from experience – but  once we have those concepts, we do not need experience to grasp the truth of these  propositions • Contrast o 3 + 5 = 8  A Priori o There are 8 potatoes in this bag  Locke o There are 3 potatoes in this bag, and 5 in that bag – so 8 in total • Even if we were to admit that all our concepts come from sense experience, some  propositions can be known to be true without consulting sense • Others cannot be known to be true without consultation (In fact, though) Some concepts are acquired a priori – the spatial extension of body, for example: you  cannot think of body without thinking of special extension In essence, we might say, Kant tries to clear up this debate by distinguishing two  different things that might be meant by the “acquisition of knowledge”:  i) How we get our concepts  ii) How we come to know the truth (or falsity) of propositions involving those  concepts. Distinguo!  (Distinguished) 4. Second distinction: anal
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