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Metaphysics & Descartes.docx

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Philosophy 1020
John Thorp

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Metaphysics and Descartes’ Substance Dualism  Tuesday, November 12, 2013 Assumptions (Descartes) • • Idea = image • Mind = soul • God exists • Thinking substance exists Part One: Shift from Epistemology to Metaphysics • Epistemology­ concerned with the theory of knowledge • Necessary conditions for knowledge o Belief o Truth o Justification  • Analysis of Truth: o Correspondence Account o Coherence Account o Pragmatic Account • Metaphysics is concerned with ultimate existence • Two main senses (or meaning) of existence: o Commonsensical Sense of Existence  Everyday use of “existence” o Ultimate Sense of Existence  Metaphysician’s use of “existence” • Examples of metaphysical questions: o Do colours exist? o Does time exist? o Do natural numbers exist?  Note: These questions are asked in the ultimate sense of the word “existence”  and not in the everyday sense of the word • The general metaphysical question: o Q. What exists in the world? o A. Everything • For Descartes, every thing or entity is either o Thinking Substance (Mind/Soul):  Essence= thinking, un­extended, no parts o Material Substance (Bodies)  Essence= extended, unthinking Part Two: Descartes’ Arguments for Substance Dualism Argument fro
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