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General renal physiology

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Western University
Physiology 3120
Tom Stavraky

Human Physiology Monday, October 26, 2009 Renal Physiology • Functions of the kidneys 1. Regulation of extracellular fluid volume & blood pressure (i.e. maintains homeostasis) 2. Regulation of osmolarity (290-300 mOs/L) 3. Maintain ion balance 4. pH maintained  Important for enzyme function 5. Excretion of waste (i.e. urine)  Urea – nitrogenous organic waste  Creatinin – organic waste from muscles 6. Production of hormones (erythropoeotin  stimulates production of RBCs) 7. Gluconeogenesis (i.e. formation of glucose from other forms) • Anatomy of the kidney  Located just beneath the sternum at the back of the body  Outer layer = cortex; granular appearance  Most filtering occurs here  Inner layer = medulla  Urine collected in the calyces from the medulla  Calyces collect into the renal pelvis, which then filters down through the ureter into the bladder • Anatomy of the nephron  Functional unit of the kidney  About 1 million nephrons per kidney (we only need about 250K, so have a huge reserve capacity)  80% located in the cortex layer; the other 20% are juxtamedullary nephrons (dip into the medulla)  Cortical • Renal corpuscle in upper- to mid-portion of cortex • Shorter loop of Henle • After the efferent arteriole, blood supply called peritubular capillaries  Juxtamedullary • Renal corpuscle in lower-portion of cortex • After the efferent arteriole, blood supply is called vasa recta (specialized for concentrating urine)  2 main structures  Renal corpuscle (Bowman’s capsule & glomerulus)  Tubule – multiple functional sections  Blood enters the renal corpuscle from the renal artery  Filtrate enters the tubules & is processed  4-5 nep
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