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CV regulation 3

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Physiology 3120
Tom Stavraky

Human Physiology Monday, January 25, 2010 “CV X” Cardiovascular Regulatory Mechanisms • Types  Local (autoregulation)  Myogenic theory • Resistance cells in arterioles are sensitive to pressure; can adjust resistance based on resistance changes  Metabolic theory • Adjusts vascular resistance as well  Humoral  Vasoconstrictors • Epinephrine • Norepinephrine • Angiotensin II  see Renal notes to review formation of AII o Has direct & indirect effects • Vasopressin (ADH) o High concentration in blood following hemorrhage  Vasodilators • Bradykinin: formed from alpha-2 globulin in plasma • Histamine: derived from eosinophils & mast cells • Adenosine: product of ATP metabolism • Nitric oxide  Neural (mainly within the ANS)  mostly control of blood pressure; function is to maintain a normal arterial pressure  Cholinergic control • Stimulates parasympathetic fibres to heart; causes decrease in heart and decrease in blood pressure  Adrenergic control • Stimulates sympathetic fibres to heart; release NE, which increase CO and BP • Stimulates splanchnic nerve to adrenal medulla; release ACh, which increases CO and BP • Stimulates sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibres to peripheral vessels; releases NE, which increases peripheral resistance and BP • ANS control of arterial pressure  Mechanoreceptor (baroreceptor reflex pathway); respond to mechanical stretch; pathway conveys info to CV centres in brainstem, which then feeds into efferent pathway t
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