Class Notes (838,987)
Canada (511,153)
Physiology (1,062)
Tom Stavraky (262)
Lecture

Diabetes Mellitus

3 Pages
56 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Physiology
Course
Physiology 3120
Professor
Tom Stavraky
Semester
Winter

Description
Human Physiology Monday, March 1, 2010 “Endocrine V” Diabetes Mellitus • Diabetes – Greek (large volume of urine); mellitus – Latin (a sweet taste)  Once tested for by observing whether ants would swarm around a person’s urine; therefore referred to as “sweet urine disease” (Madhumeha) • Characterized by hyperglycemia (too much glucose in bloodstream); polyphagia (eating frequently); polyuria; glycosuria (glucose in the urine); water and electrolyte loss • In severe cases, get ketosis (build-up of ketones in bloodstream), acidosis, coma and death • Long-term complications: retinopathy (damage to retina or lens; get expansion and contraction); nephropathy; angiopathy • Insulin stimulates. . .  Glucose uptake  • Diabetes mellitus  Type I  Insulin-dependent; failure to secrete sufficient insulin to regulate glucose utilization  Autoimmune destruction of pancreatic B-islet cells; B-islet cells produces proteins after an “insult” that promote immune reaction; the cascade is fairly rapid once it’s initiated  Early onset  Only ~10% of diabetics  Inability to import glucose; alternate energy source needed • Protein o Increased gluconeogenesis (mostly in liver) o Muscle broken down to AA, which is converted into glucose in liver; causes (I) muscle wasting and (II) weight loss • Fat (more predominant) o Increased lipolysis o Mobilization of triglycerides and free fatty acids (FFAs) for energy; clipped into acetyl-CoA, which can then enter the citric acid cycle o By-products are ketones (results in ketosis)  Fate of high serum glucose • Increased glucose filtration = water excretion = dehydration • Glucose converted to sorbitol (via the “polyol pathway”) which damages the lens, nerves, and capillaries • Increased glycosylation of proteins (via the “glyoxal pathway”; especially haemoglobin); end-products are diagnostic (levels of glycosylated haemoglobin resides in serum for a long time) and damaging  Type II  Insulin resistant/impaired insulin secretion; overall, a decreased cellular response to insulin  “Lifestyle” – overweight and sedentary  Onset in mid-life (now seeing more and more cases in juveniles)  ~90% of diabetics  Complex interplay of factors contribute to insulin resistance • Lifestyle o Muscle is major user of glucose, so regular exercise maintains the tuning of the insulin release system • Diet o Tend to eat high-fat and high-salt foods (maybe an evolutionary drive) • Genes  Leads to obesity and insulin resistance (most obese people are also IR); also leads to PCOS; increases visceral fat (behaves differ
More Less

Related notes for Physiology 3120

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit