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Physiology Day 2 Lecture Notes.docx

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Western University
Physiology 1021
Anita Woods

Physiology – Cell Signalling Dr. Anita Woods Mondays – 10:30-12:30 Thursdays – 10:30-12:30 Medical Sciences Bulding room 208 Focus on: The Cell Membrane - Important to maintain the ion gradients - Is selective for different ions and molecules – essentially controls what gets into the cells - Draw a phospholipid molecule - Cholesterols are fat, hydrophobic, hangs out in the hydrophobic core - Trans-membrane protein passes through one side of the cell membrane to the other - Carbohydrates are also associated with the cell membrane, can be physically attached to a protein, called glycoprotein when attached - Glycoproteins are found on the side of the membrane that faces outside of the cell - When carbohydrate is attached to a lipid, its called a glycolipid, instead of a phosphate head it has a carbohydrate head Homeostasis and Cell Signaling - Long-distance communication is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis - ex. Metabolism, hearth rate, body temperature - They maintain these functions by using both chemicals and electrical means of communication Neurotransmitters (long distance) - Chemical signal released by a neuron onto a target cell – rapid effect - Affect only cells with receptors for that chemical - Nervous transmission is really fast Hormones (long distance) - Produced by an endocrine cell - Chemical signal secreted into the bloodstream - Affect only cells with receptors for the chemical - Hormonal transmission is slower than nervous transmission Neurohormones (long distance) - Chemical signal made by a neuron and secreted into the bloodstream - Only affects cells with receptors for the chemical Chemical-Mediated Cell-Cell Communication Autocrine: signal acts on the cell that made i
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