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Neuroscience - Unit 2 Summary .docx

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Physiology 1021
John Ciriello

Neuroscience Summary Sheet 11/10/2012 4:48:00 PM Hypothalamus: Functions:  Controls ANS, Neuroendocrine  Reproduction  Water, Sodium, Energy Balance and Exchange  Drives and emotions  Circadian Rhythms  Body Temperature regulation AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM:  Brain, Brain Stem, Spinal Cord  Nerve fibres innervate Cardiac and Smooth muscle + glands  Parasympathetic o “Rest and Digest”  Sympathetic Nervous System o “Fight or Flight” Differences:  PNS: Preganglionic neuron = LONGER  All release Ach  dilate blood vessels  SNS release NE and E  constrict blood vessels  PNS: Specific Target Posterior Hypothalamus: Sympathetic Nervous System Anterior Hypothalamus: Parasympathetic Nervous System Hypothalamus produces hormones from ANTERIOR pituitary gland (NOT part of the brain) Posterior Pituitary = Supraoptic neurons + Paraventricular Nuclei Hormones  Circulation ADH (Vasopressin): Anti-Diuretic Hormone  activated with salt change in the plasma osmolarity Oxytocin: Neural Endocrine reflex  Sexually dimorphic  Activated through mechanical stimulation  Release of milk (post labour) and contractions (labour) Water Loss Regulation: Vasopressin – thirsty  H2O intake  diluting blood  decrease osmolarity  stop stimulus (neg. feedback) Conserve water in the kidneys WHY?  Increase osmolarity (water leaves  cells shrink (hypertonic)  Decrease blood volume (atria stretch receptor activated  increase ADH  Decrease blood pressure: (baroreceptor in aorta hypothalamusADH) Food Intake  Lateral hypothalamus + ventromedial = energy intake regulation  Leptin is released from fat tissues  signal to brain if you’ve ate enough or not enough  Increase in leptin activates SATIETY CENTRE (Arcuate Nucleus + Ventromedial Hypothalamus)  STOP EATING  Decrease in le
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