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Lecture 3

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Physiology 2130
Anita Woods

Physiology Lecture 3 – Communication of the Cells  Communication o Long distance communication is key o Nervous and endocrine systems coordinate many functions within the body to maintain homeostasis  Example: metabolism, heart rate o They use chemical and electrical means of communication  Long Distance Communication o Neurotransmitters  Chemical signal released by neuron onto target cell  Rapid effect  Affect only cells with receptors for that chemical o Hormones  Chemical signal  Produced by endocrine cells  Secreted into bloodstream  Affect only cells with receptors for it  Not as fast as neurotransmitter o Neurohormones  Chemical signal  Made by neuron  Secreted into bloodstream  Affects cells with receptors  Example: oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone  Short Distance Communication o Chemical-Mediated Cell-Cell Communication  Autocrine: signal acts on cell that made it  Paracrine: signal acts on neighbouring cell  Cytokine: chemical signal made by any type of cell in response to a stimulus o Contact-Dependent Signals  Surface molecules on one cell membrane bind to a membrane protein of another cell (both sides react)  Example: in the dark, you walk around, feel a table, react to avoid the table o Gap Junctions  Faster than the nervous system  Protein channels that make cytoplasmic ‘bridges’ between adjacent cells  Directly transfer chemical and electrical cells  Made of proteins called connexions  Functions of Membrane Proteins o Ion Channels: allow specific ions to pass through (in or out) o Enzyme: speeds the rate of reactions o Receptors: for hormone or neurotransmitter o Membrane Carriers: bind to something and flip it in or out of
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