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Physiology 2130
Sarah Mc Lean

Metabolism Metabolism: chemical changes that occur within a cell to either manufacture energy, store energy, or build new cell structures. 1) Anabolism: creation of large molecules from small ones with the use of ATP 2) Catabolism: breakdown of large molecules into small ones resulting in the release of ATP Building Blocks - Three building blocks circulate in the body and can be used to create new structures in the cell or to form ATP or be stored for later use Energy Production Circulating Storage form Main Storage Percentage Stored energy can form site of energy last… from source Glucose Glycogen Liver/skeletal 1% Less than a day (1 choice muscle of energy source) Fatty Acids Triglycerides Adipose 77% Roughly 2 months (2 choice) tissue Amino Cellular protein Muscle 22% Death usually occurs Acids before all proteins are (not usually used up used as energy source) Metabolism – General Look - 3 reactions that take place within cell to produce energy from the breakdown of food Reaction 1  Glycolysis  occurs in cytoplasm  no O2  anaerobic (1 Glucose = 2 ATP) Reaction 2  Citric acid cycle  occurs in mitochondria  O2  aerobic (1 Glucose = 2 ATP) Reaction 3  Oxidative phosphorylation  occurs in mitochondria  O2  aerobic (1 Glucose = 34 ATP) Glucose - can enter glycolysis at the beginning of reaction AA - can be converted to pyruvate to enter glycolysis or can be converted to acetyl CoA to enter citric acid cycle Fats - can be broken down to glycerol and free fatty acids - glycerol can enter glycolysis - fatty acids can be converted to acetyl CoA to enter citric acid cycle Metabolism of Glucose - stored as glycogen in most cells of body (mostly liver and muscle) - common fuel source (only fuel source for brain) Glycolysis - Glucose will enter cell and will be converted to glucose 6 phosphate - G6P can enter glycolysis to produce ATP or it can be converted to glycogen - During glycolysis, G6P will produce ATP and pyruvate - Pyruvate can enter CAC = lot’s of ATP - Pyruvate can enter another shorter reaction to produce a small amount of ATP and lactate o If oxygen present then pyruvate will enter CAC o If no oxygen present then pyruvate will be converted to lactic acid Lactic Acid - during strenuous exercise, your cardiovascular system may not be able to supply sufficient O2 to your working muscle cells to produce ATP - Glycolysis is anaerobic therefore it can continue without oxygen to produce ATP - Insufficient O2 = CAC not work at full capacity = pyruvate accumulation - Too much pyruvate = glycolysis slows down = pyruvate converted to lactic acid - Lactic acid accumulation causes burning sensation in the muscle (dilation of blood vessel, decreased pH) - Most reactions a
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