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Physio 2130 Review .docx

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Department
Physiology
Course
Physiology 2130
Professor
Anita Woods
Semester
Fall

Description
MIDTERM1HypothalamusfunctionsBodytemperatureregulationBodyenergybalanceandexchangeWaterbalanceandexchangeSodiumbalanceandexchangeControlofautonomicsystemNeuroendocrinecontrolposteriorpituitarycatecholaminereleasedfromadrenalmedullainteractionbetweennervoussystemandendocrineglandsDrivesandemotionsexfeedingattackCircadianrhythmsReproductionbehaviorandpituitaryfunctionParasympatheticfastspecificSympatheticslowlowspecificitySalivasecretionwateryparasympatheticmucusthicksympatheticBladdercontractioncontractiondirectvasoconstrictioncauseurinetosqueezeoutofbladderPupilconstrictPupildilationBronchioleconstrictBronchioledilateStimulateperistalsissecretionandreleaseInhibitionofperistalsissecretionofbileConversionofglycogentoglucoseSecretionofadrenalineandnoradrenalineHypothalamiccontrolofpituitaryglandAnteriorpituitaryHormonesecretedbybasomedialhypothalamusthroughcirculatorysystemhypophysealportalsystemPosteriorpituitarySupraopticSONandparaventricularnucleiPVHbothpartofhypothalamushaveAVPneuronsthatproduceADHvasopressinVPandoxytocinandaredirectlyreleasedtoposteriorpituitarythroughtheiraxonsconnectionhypothalamichypophysealtractwheretheyaretemporarilystoredinneurohypophysisADHandoxytocinarebothmadeinthehypothalamusandreleasedintocirculationNeuralendocrinereflexastimulationtosensoryneuronsendssignaltothebrainwhichthenrespondthroughendocrinesystemreleaseofhormoneexOxytocinreleasestimulatemammaryglandhypothalamusposteriorpituitaryreleaseoxytocinbacktomammaryglandallowmilkletdownPositivefeedbacksMoresuckingonbreastmoreoxytocinisproducedtocreatemilkletdownMorepressureexertedinuterusthemoreoxytocinisproducedNegativefeedbackresponsetosaltingestionHypothalamusproduceADHtoincreasewaterreabsorptioninthekidneyconservewaterCausethirsttodrinkandobtainmorewaterWayshypothalamusisstimulatedtoreleaseADHVPHypothalamicosmoreceptorosmolaritygreaterthan280mOsMAtrialstretchreceptorlowbloodvolumeCartotidandaorticbaroreceptordecreasedbloodpressure60menobese38femaleobeseinCanadaWhydoweeatenvironmentandlifestyleTasteandsmellpalatabilityCostrewardoptimizationInternalclockAvailabilityCuesandsocialhabitsIndividualpredispositionforobesityGeneticsGeneticsEpigeneticsImprintedEarlylifeeventsHighfatandsugardietscontributetodevelopmentofobesityAdiposetissuesreleaseleptinhormonethatprovidessatietysignalhighleptinhighfatsatiationlowleptinlowfathungerOxrexinpeptideformedinlateralhypothalamusneuronshelpsinducefeedingInterferenceswithSatietyCentreChronicsecretionofleptintoomuchleptinreleaseincreaseleptinresistancenolongerhavesatietysignalSNSsympatheticnervoussystemhypertensionAblationlesionofArcuateVMHhypothalamicnucleidamagesatietycenterneverfeelfullGAINWEIGHTexObesityInterferencewithHungerCenterAblationoflateralhypothalamicnucleusLOSSWEIGHTexAnorexiaMetabolicsyndromecollectionofsignsandsymptomsthatareassociatedwithmetabolicdisorderandcardiovasculardiseaseAnorexiaobesityinvolvesgeneticneurochemicalpsychodevelopmentalandsocioculturalfactorsALLinvolvehypothalamusMelatoninproducedinpinealglandissuppressedinthepresenceoflightCircadianrhythm24hrcycleinwhichbiologicalrhythmisfoundexCorticosteroneLHmelatoninreleaseallfollow24hrpatternSuprachiasmaticnucleusSCNbiologicalclockcontrolthefollowingcircadianrhythmsSleepmelatoninFoodandwaterintakeUrineproductionBloodpressurespikeinthemorningPlateletaggregationWhitebloodcellproductionBodytemperaturechangeHormonereleasecorticosteroneluteinizinghormonemelatoninMenstrualcycleHeatisproducedthroughRadiationsunConductionMetabolismMusclecontractionskeletalmostheatproducedandhighestefficiencyblueindicatesexternalheatinputsHeatislostthroughConvectionRadiationEvaporationConductionAtlowtemperatureactivateposteriorhypothalamusSympatheticadrenergicmusclecontractionsomaticneuronsstimulateskeletalmusclevesselconstrictionincreasebloodpressuresweatglandinactiveRAISEtempAthightemperatureactivateanteriorhypothalamusSympatheticcholinergicvesseldilationinhibitheatconservingmechanismsweatglandactivateLOWERtemperatureBrownfatproduceheatthroughchemicalprocess
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