Physiology 1021 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Bronchitis, Collagen, Pulmonary Fibrosis

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Lung Volume and Measurements and
Indications of Pathology
Respiration Lecture 3
The device used to measure lung volumes and capacities is
called a spirometer
Four Lung Volumes:
Tidal Volume: the volume of air that you breathe in or out in
one breath at rest  about 500 mL
Inspiratory Reserve Volume: the amount of air that you can
inhale in addition to a normal breath (tidal volume)
Expiratory Reserve Volume: the amount of air that you can
exhale after a normal tidal volume
Residual Volume: the remaining air in the lungs after maximal
exhalation, this hair is NEVER breathed out
Lung Capacities:
Total Lung Capacity: the maximum amount of air that the
lungs can hold (the sum of all four lung volumes)
Vital Capacity: amount of usable air that can be exhaled after a
maximal inhalation  is the sum of inspiratory reserve volume +
tidal volume + expiratory reserve volume (everything but
residual volume)
Lung measurements used to diagnose diseases:
Forced Vital Capacity (FVC): the amount that you can forcibly
exhale after a maximal inhalation
Forced Expiratory Reserve Volume per second (FEV1): the
amount of air that you can forcibly exhale after maximal
inhalation per second
To measure pulmonary function we divide FEV1/ FVC  in a
normal healthy person it should be 80%
Obstructive Lung Conditions:
Air moves in normally but they have di-culty exhaling
Characteristics
oNarrow airway
oHigh resistance
oFEV1/ FVC is greater than 80%
Examples: asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema,
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