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Lecture

Physiology 1021 Lecture Notes - Lipid Bilayer, Fluid Compartments, Extracellular Fluid


Department
Physiology
Course Code
PHYSIO 1021
Professor
John Ciriello

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Homeostasis, Membrane Transport & Excitable Cells
Summary
Organ Systems Continuous with External Environment:
Respiratory
Urinary
Reproductive
Digestive
Homeostasis:
Ability of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal
environment
Regulated through negative feed back loops
o Decrease the impact of change
Body Fluids:
Extracellular fluid (interstitial fluid + plasma) bathe cells
o Act as a transition between external environment and
intracellular fluid cytoplasm
o
“Salty Bananas”
Cellular Structure:

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Smooth ER: Makes lipids and fatty acids
Centrioles: Cell division splitting equally directing DNA
Golgi App: Modify/Package Proteins
Rough ER: Manufacture protein
Cytoskeleton: Provide support, enable motility
Mitochondria: ATP
Lysosome: digest bacteria and old organelles
Nucleus: DNA
Cell Membrane:
Maintain ion gradients
Selectively Permeable

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Cell Signaling:
Long distance = ESSENTIAL for homeostasis
o Nervous and endocrine coordinate many homeostatic
functions
Metabolism, heart rate, body temperature
o Chemical and electrical communication
Neurotransmitters:
o Chemical signal: neuron target cell
o Only affect cells with receptor for chemical
Hormones:
o Endocrine bloodstream target cell (with receptor)
Neurohormones:
o Neuron bloodstream target cell (with receptor)
Chemical Mediated Cell-Cell Communication:
Autocrine: cell makes and uses signal
Paracrine: signal acts on neighboring cells
Cytokine: chemical signal made by any cell in response to stimuli
Contact-Dependent Signals:
GAP Junctions:
o Protein channels form cytoplasmic bridges
o Direct transfer of chemicals and electrical signals
o Protein “connexin”
Cell Membrane in Communication:
Must pass through in order to be processed
o Ion channels
o Enzymes
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