Physiology 1021 Lecture Notes - Lateral Hypothalamus, Sexual Dimorphism, Osmotic Concentration

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Published on 20 Nov 2012
Department
Professor
Neuroscience Summary Sheet 11/10/2012 4:48:00 PM
Hypothalamus:
Functions:
Controls ANS, Neuroendocrine
Reproduction
Water, Sodium, Energy Balance and Exchange
Drives and emotions
Circadian Rhythms
Body Temperature regulation
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM:
Brain, Brain Stem, Spinal Cord
Nerve fibres innervate Cardiac and Smooth muscle + glands
Parasympathetic
o “Rest and Digest”
Sympathetic Nervous System
o “Fight or Flight”
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Differences:
PNS: Preganglionic neuron = LONGER
All release Ach dilate blood vessels
SNS release NE and E constrict blood vessels
PNS: Specific Target
Posterior Hypothalamus: Sympathetic Nervous System
Anterior Hypothalamus: Parasympathetic Nervous System
Hypothalamus produces hormones from ANTERIOR pituitary gland (NOT part
of the brain)
Posterior Pituitary = Supraoptic neurons + Paraventricular Nuclei
Hormones Circulation
ADH (Vasopressin): Anti-Diuretic Hormone activated with salt change in
the plasma osmolarity
Oxytocin: Neural Endocrine reflex
Sexually dimorphic
Activated through mechanical stimulation
Release of milk (post labour) and contractions (labour)
Water Loss Regulation:
Vasopressin thirsty H2O intake diluting blood decrease osmolarity
stop stimulus (neg. feedback)
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Conserve water in the kidneys
WHY?
Increase osmolarity (water leaves cells shrink (hypertonic)
Decrease blood volume (atria stretch receptor activated increase
ADH
Decrease blood pressure: (baroreceptor in aorta
hypothalamusADH)
Food Intake
Lateral hypothalamus + ventromedial = energy intake regulation
Leptin is released from fat tissues signal to brain if you’ve ate
enough or not enough
Increase in leptin activates SATIETY CENTRE (Arcuate Nucleus +
Ventromedial Hypothalamus) STOP EATING
Decrease in leptin activates FEEDING CENTRE (Lateral
hypothalamus + Paraventricular Nucleus) EAT
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