Physiology 2130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Common Bile Duct, Pancreatic Duct, Intestinal Villus

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MODULE #15-DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Objectives
List the building blocks for carbohydrates, proteins and lipids
Draw and label a picture of the digestive system
List of the names of the salivary glands and describe their functions
Describe the sequence of events in swallowing
Draw and label a diagram of the stomach and list the function and secretion from each
part
Draw and label a diagram of the small intestine and intestinal villi
Describe the sequence of events in carbohydrate digestion and absorption
Describe the sequence of events in protein digestion and absorption
Describe the sequence of events in lipid digestion and absorption
Describe the site where bile is produced and list its function
Describe the similarities between protein and carbohydrate absorption
Describe the absorption of vitamins
List the amount of water absorbed in different sections of the digestive tract and
describe the process of water absorption
Describe the relationship of the enteric nervous system to the divisions of the
autonomic nervous system and list the enteric nervous system’s functions
Describe the long loop and short loop reflexes of the enteric nervous system and their
effects on the digestive tract
Describe the basal electrical rhythms of the digestive tract and how they can alter
motility
List the hormones of the intestine and stomach and describe their functions
Describe the 3 phases of gastric acid secretion and how they are regulated. Compare
and contrast the hormones and regulatory mechanisms for each
Introduction
Function of the digestive system is to break down organic nutrients so they can be
absorbed into the body
- Such organic nutrients include: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins, and
minerals
The Digestive System- The Meal
Components of a McDonald Meal
1. Meat
- Made up of mostly protein with some fat
2. Hamburger bun and fries
- Made up of carbohydrates (fries also contain some
fat)
3. Soda
- Mostly water, carbohydrates, some other dissolved
substances
The Digestive System- Anatomy and Basic Functions
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MODULE #15-DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
1. Mouth
- Food in the mouth are broken up via mastication (chewing) and is mixed with saliva
2. Salivary Glands
- Produce saliva to moisten and begin digesting some food particles
3. Esophagus
- Muscular tube that connects the mouth and pharynx to the stomach
4. Stomach
- Stores, mixes, and digests some good and delivers it to the small intestine
5. Liver
- Produces and secretes bile (in digestive system)
6. Gall Bladder
- Stores and concentrates bile
7. Pancreas
- Secretes digestive enzymes, hormones, and bicarbonate
8. Small Intestine
- Allows digestion and absorption of most food particles
9. Large Intestine
- Stores and concentrates undigested material and absorbs salt and water
10. Rectum
- Site where defecation reflex is triggered
The Digestive System- Basic Processes
Basic processes of the digestive system involve: secretion, digestion, absorption,
excretion, and motility
Secretion- involves the release of digestive fluids into the lumen of the digestive tract.
This fluid may include water, mucus, acid, electrolytes, enzymes, bile salts and digestive
enzymes
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MODULE #15-DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
Digestion- process whereby food is broken down into smaller molecules by the digestive
enzymes so they can be taken up by the body
Absorption- process whereby these small molecules are taken up by the circulatory
system and are distributed throughout the body
Motility- the movement of food through the digestive system by the contraction of
smooth muscles that line the walls of the tract
Excretion- removal of the unwanted waste products from the body after almost all of
the wanted material is absorbed
The Digestive System- The Mouth
Digestion begins in the mouth where food is broken
down by mastication/chewing and is mixed with saliva
to form bolus
Saliva contents are 99.5% water with 0.5% ions and
proteins; it is secreted by the parotid gland,
submandibular gland, and sublingual gland
- Up to 2L of saliva are produced each day
Saliva helps to lubricate the bolus of food and begins
digesting carbohydrates because it contains amylase
(enzyme)
Production and secretion of saliva is under autonomic
nervous system control
The Digestive System- Swallowing
After formation of the bolus and is sufficiently lubricated
with saliva, it is pushed towards the back of the mouth by
the tongue and swallowing reflex is initiated
Swallowing reflex:
- The uvula of the soft palate closes over nasopharynx
- Larynx is lifted by muscles in the neck
- Epiglottis bends back over the glottis and covers the
larynx
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