Physiology 2130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Heart Valve, Aortic Valve, Pulmonary Valve

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Module #8: The Heart
Introduction
oThe heart beats long before birth and does not stop until death
oThe average beating time of the heart is 2.5 billion times
oBlood vessels range for about 160,000 km and transport blood to every cell in the
body
oFour main functions of the CV system:
1) Transports oxygen and nutrients to all cells of the body
2) Transports CO2 and waste products
3) Regulates body temperature and pH
4) It transports and distributes hormones and other substances within the body
Anatomy- the heart
oThere are 2 side-by-side pumps: right atrium and ventricle (blood to lungs) and left
atrium and ventricle (blood to rest of the body)
oWalls of left ventricle is thicker than right ventricular wall because propelling blood
to entire body (bar lungs) requires more contraction force
oValves of the heart
1) Right atrioventricular (AV) valve; aka tricuspid valve
2) Left atrioventricular (AV) valve; aka bicuspid or mitral valve
Circulation through the heart
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Circulation through the heart (Steps)
1. Blood enters heart via the right atrium
2. From right atrium, it passes through the right AV valve and into the right ventricle
3. Right ventricle contracts, ejecting the blood out of the heart through the pulmonary
valve and into the pulmonary artery to the lungs
4. After passing through the lungs, CO2 is removed while O2 is picked up, and blood
returns to the left atrium via pulmonary vein
5. Blood enters the left ventricle through the left AV valve
6. Left ventricle contracts and blood is ejected through the aortic valve into aorta and
out to the body
Figure 1: Parts of the heart
Myocardial Cells
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oIs the basic cell type within the heart
o2 principal types:
1) Contractile cells: similar to skeletal muscle cells
2) Nodal/conducting cells: similar to nerve cells
Contractile Cells
oForms walls of the walls of the atria and ventricles
oContain actin and myosin as the primary contractile proteins arranged in bundles of
myofibrils surrounded by a sarcoplasmic reticulum
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