Physiology 3120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Tandem Pore Domain Potassium Channel, Hyperkalemia, Collecting Duct System

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Renal & Bone Physiology
Lecture 8
Disturbances in Sodium and Water Levels
Also increased/decreased ANP + RAAS pathway during these responses
Increasing Plasma Osmolarity and Decreasing Volume
Low ADH
High ADH
Highest ADH
Sweat is the removal of hypo-osmotic
fluid from the body
Sweating is the maximal time when
ADH is released from pituitary
1. Increased Plasma Osmolarity
2. Decreased ECF Volume
Macula densa cells are not activated here
(due to increase in Na+ conc more than
normal)
o 2 of the stimuli for Renin release
is present and 1 is absent
Increase sodium reabsorption further
improves water reabsorption via
osmosis
Maximizing water conservation
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(1) Increased water balance Normal ECF Volume Turn off RAAS pathway
ADH release continues Increased water reabsorption continues (2) Increase
sodium/osmolarity balance (from sodium reabsorption due to RAAS) Homeostasis
** have to balance both water and osmolarity
body balances water first and osmolarity follows
Acid/Base Balance
The kidneys is one of the three mechanisms that body uses to balance acids & bases
Most important buffer HCO3-
Mechanisms to perform Acid/Base Balance by the kidney:
1. Excrete excess H+
2. Reabsorb filtered HCO3- (no problem being filtered; kidney ensures this is reabsorbed)
3. Create new HCO3-
Sources of Acids and Bases in the Body
ACIDS
Food acidic fruits, amino acids, fatty acids
o Citrus fruit alkalinizes blood paradox
o Some AA’s are acidic/basic (most are acidic)
Metabolic intermediates pyruvate, components of the citric acid cycle
Lactic acid created by anaerobic metabolism
o Produced in muscles but secreted and acidifies blood
Production of CO2 by aerobic respiration
BASES
Food some fruits and vegetables
** More likely to experience alkalosis over alkalosis but body is good at balancing it bc its
what happens more frequently
If H+ is not contributing to a protein, will acidify blood
Direction depends on pH of body (i.e. high conc of CO2 HCO3- production)
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