Physiology 3120 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Renal Pelvis, Renal Pyramids, Blood Sugar

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Renal Physiology
Lecture 1
Overview of Kidney Function
1. Regulation of ionic composition of blood
o Na+, Ca2+, K+, Cl-, CO3, etc
2. Regulation of blood pH
o pH affects protein folding
o Can cause denaturation & decrease protein fc’n
3. Regulation of blood volume
o Excrete or conserve fluid
o Kidneys work with heart to maintain right amount of blood volume
4. Regulation of blood pressure
o Proper amount of fluid in the body is essential in maintaining BP
5. Maintenance of blood osmolarity
o 300 mOsmol
o Solutes in blood
6. Production of hormones
o Endocrine organ
o Makes erythropoietin
o Activates Vit D (steroid hormone)
7. Regulation of blood glucose levels
o Brain runs almost exclusively on glucose
o Makes glucose from other sources (non-carb sources) if needed
8. Excretion of wastes and foreign substances
o Foreign substances various pharmaceuticals (i.e. hydrophilic drugs)
o Wastes urea, uric acid, creatinine, urobilin
Kidney Anatomy
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Renal Cortex: outermost part where ultrafiltration occurs & EP is produced
(granulated)
Renal Medulla: innermost part where it splits up into renal pyramids (striated)
Renal Pelvis: hollow section in middle of kidney where urine collects
Calyces: funnels urine from the tissues (cortex & medulla) into the renal pelvis
Ureter: where urine leaves the kidney towards the bladder
Renal Artery: brings in blood & branches into smaller BVs in kidney
Renal Vein: takes blood out
Kidney Blood Supply
Different organs in our body have various distribution of blood
Liver: metabolizes things from the blood
o i.e. Vit D gets metabolized & sent to kidney
Kidney: uses lots of blood as well
o A lot smaller than liber
o Incredibly high blood flow/kg (get a lot more blood than other organs)
o Blood flow to the kidney is very important
Nephron Blood Supply
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