Renal physiology: functions of the kidneys, regulation of extracellular fluid volume & blood pressure (i. e. maintains homeostasis, regulation of osmolarity (290-300 mos/l, maintain ion balance, ph maintained. Important for enzyme function: excretion of waste (i. e. urine) Creatinin organic waste from muscles: production of hormones (erythropoeotin stimulates production of rbcs, gluconeogenesis (i. e. formation of glucose from other forms, anatomy of the kidney. Located just beneath the sternum at the back of the body. Urine collected in the calyces from the medulla. Calyces collect into the renal pelvis, which then filters down through the ureter into the bladder: anatomy of the nephron. About 1 million nephrons per kidney (we only need about 250k, so have a huge reserve. 80% located in the cortex layer; the other 20% are juxtamedullary nephrons (dip into the capacity) medulla) Cortical: renal corpuscle in upper- to mid-portion of cortex, shorter loop of henle, after the efferent arteriole, blood supply called peritubular capillaries.