Physiology 3120 Lecture Notes - Renal Corpuscle, Renal Pelvis, Renal Artery

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Published on 26 Nov 2011
Department
Professor
Human Physiology
Monday, October 26, 2009
Renal Physiology
Functions of the kidneys
1. Regulation of extracellular fluid volume & blood pressure (i.e. maintains homeostasis)
2. Regulation of osmolarity (290-300 mOs/L)
3. Maintain ion balance
4. pH maintained
Important for enzyme function
5. Excretion of waste (i.e. urine)
Urea – nitrogenous organic waste
Creatinin – organic waste from muscles
6. Production of hormones (erythropoeotin stimulates production of RBCs)
7. Gluconeogenesis (i.e. formation of glucose from other forms)
Anatomy of the kidney
Located just beneath the sternum at the back of the body
Outer layer = cortex; granular appearance
Most filtering occurs here
Inner layer = medulla
Urine collected in the calyces from the medulla
Calyces collect into the renal pelvis, which then filters down through the ureter into the bladder
Anatomy of the nephron
Functional unit of the kidney
About 1 million nephrons per kidney (we only need about 250K, so have a huge reserve
capacity)
80% located in the cortex layer; the other 20% are juxtamedullary nephrons (dip into the
medulla)
Cortical
Renal corpuscle in upper- to mid-portion of cortex
Shorter loop of Henle
After the efferent arteriole, blood supply called peritubular capillaries
Juxtamedullary
Renal corpuscle in lower-portion of cortex
After the efferent arteriole, blood supply is called vasa recta (specialized for
concentrating urine)
2 main structures
Renal corpuscle (Bowman’s capsule & glomerulus)
Tubule – multiple functional sections
Blood enters the renal corpuscle from the renal artery
Filtrate enters the tubules & is processed
4-5 nephrons per collecting duct
Renal corpuscle – in detail
Bowman’s capsule
Composed of parietal epithelial cells
Ball-like, surrounds glomerulus
Glomerular capillaries made of endothelial cells & is a single cell layer
Called leaky or fenestrated (more opportunity for filtration)
Covered by podocytes, wrap around the leaky capillaries, further filtration
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