Basal ganglia function of supplementary motor cortex (sma) first deduced using pet screens; measured blood flow, which is indicative of metabolic activity in neurons. Metabolic activity mostly due to epsps and ipsps, not aps. Simple finger flexion increased blood flow in somatosensory & motor cortex. Sequential finger flexions increased blood flow in somatosensory & motor cortex, and supplementary motor cortex. Think about sequential finger flexions increased blood flow in supplementary motor area only. Conclusion: supplementary motor area programs motor cortex when performing complex, sequential movements basal ganglia. 4 different loops; separate pathways through basal ganglia that end up back in the cortex classically associated with motor functions but there are other loops that are not motor areas: motor, oculomotor. 2. from the cerebral cortex from the substantia nigra pars compacta. The major neurotransmitters in the caudate/putamen are dopamine (excitatory or inhibitory), ach (for interneurons in the neostriatum), and glutamate.