Lung volumes & deadspace: measure volumes by spirometry. Every turn person inhales, bell moves down and pen moves up; vice-versa for exhalation: volume definitions (using spirometry as basis) Tidal volume: volume inhaled with each breath; usually around 500ml. Vital capacity: volume of air that can be forcibly exhaled after maximal inspiration. Residual volume: volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximal expiration. Cannot be measured with a spirometer (only measures movement of pen in response to ventilation) Functional residual capacity: volume of air remaining in lungs after normal expiration. Inspiratory reserve volume: volume of air that can be forcibly inhaled following normal inspiration; becomes smaller as you exercise. Total lung capacity: volume of air in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. Minute volume/pulmonary ventilation: volume inhaled per minute; calculated by tv x. Forced expiratory volume-1 second (fev-1sec): fraction of vital capacity expired in one frequency of respiration second.