Physiology 3120 Lecture Notes - Agranulocyte, Distal Convoluted Tubule, Trpv5

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Parathyroid physiology & calcium metabolism: regulation of ca mostly by parathyroid hormone (pth); more tightly regulated than any other ion in the body, processes requiring calcium. Signal transduction (secretory vesicle release, transcriptional activation [coactivator]) Enzyme cofactor (troponin c, calcium-calmodulin: human skeleton. 1% of ca is non-skeletal (blood, in ionized, protein-bound, or complexed forms); only about half of this non-skeletal ca is free and diffusible. 99% of ca found in bone (calcium phosphate; accounts for 50% of skeletal weight) Apical surface = faces gut lumen; basolateral surface = faces circulation. Contain ca transporters that open up in presence of gut ca, allowing ca into cells; carried across cytoplasm to basolateral membrane, where a ca atpase pumps it into bloodstream; maintains gradient across cell. Some excreted in feces (~800mg); can be from (i) unabsorbed ca, and (ii) normal gut secretion of fluids and enzymes (many enzymes require ca)

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