Physiology 3120 Lecture Notes - Cholesteryl Ester, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone, Acth Receptor

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Divided into several layers: glomerulosa aldosterone, fasciculata cortisol, reticularis androgens (fairly significant source of androgens) 75% in plasma bound to cbg (corticosteroid binding globulin, or transcortin); primarily produced in liver. 15% bound to hsa; garbage-truck of circulatory system. 10% free; available to cross plasma membrane and have biological activity: metabolized in liver; conjugated to glucoronic acid or sulphates, and excreted by kidney, which is the basis for steroid urine tests. Secretion controlled by direct innervation: hpa axis. Increases blood glucose and amino acid levels in response to stress (need more glucose) Increases muscle catabolism: amino acid uptake in liver increases gluconeogenesis, decreases glucose uptake by fat and muscle by inhibiting glut4 activity. Increases catabolism: lipid hydrolysis increased circulating fatty acids, bone and connective tissue catabolism osteopenia, thinning of skin and support structures (in chronic stress) Acth and cortisol release is pulsatile raising blood glucose. In general, its actions oppose those of insulin (somewhat like glucagon); designated f action.

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