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Lecture 5

Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Federal Security Agency, Preemptive War, Homeland Security


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Nig
Lecture
5

Page:
of 6
1
POLITICAL SCIENCE LECTURE: MARCH 23
Trumpism Populist
I’ doig so ell eause the Aeria people ko hat’s right, ee if their leaders i
Washington have sold out
o Stand up against the elite
Domestic Security
Security and the State
Duality: External anarchy, internal order
Security: safety from harm or threats
Based o state’s apait to:
o a) maintain order within borders
o b) protect against external threats
16th century onward: Long decline in domestic crime and culture
o We do need law, but there is a growing notion that we should not act violently towards
one another against family, animals, environment, etc.
18th-19th Centuries: Police replace military as providers of domestic orders modern invention
o Initially, policing was a function of the military providing domestic order police was
drawn out of this
o After 9/11 militarization of the police
The Domestic role of the military
o Militar is a etesio of the state’s oopol o iolee 
o Arm of executive political part that is elected, police is an extension of bureaucracy
not elected
o Can deter or suppress rebellion, revolution military tries to get rid of these
o Regime falls when military ceases to defend It
o Military may offer itself as alternative to civilian rule
o Toronto snow military
o Muslim brotherhood
The Role of the Police
o Perspectives:
o a) Liberal sustains rule of law impartially, consensually
o b) Conservative props up the state authority in face of constant threat of disorder
need a powerful military
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2
o c) Radical serves elites, represses people, requires constant check and challenge
systemic oppression
o Broken Windows theory any sign of lack of concern and oversight will cause more crime
broken windows, graffiti
o Ferguso, Missouri’s suersio of it – why are the police not going after elite? Largely white
police uses minor crimes to make money elites had their crimes revoked same activity in a
poor neighborhood results in much more police activity on welfare etc. and being fined
broken window tickets being given to racial minorities
o In a police state: - police can create a police state seen in totalitarian
o Polie do’t rule, ut are a etral istruet of rule – police become an extension of the
regime internally to force action
o Constitutionalism and the rule of law are set aside
o Cases: Nazi Gera, The “oiet Uio, Piohet’s Chile
o Key: arbitrary rule!
External/Internal Distinction Revisited
o Even more difficult to sustain with:
o a) globalization
o b) 9/11 linked domestic and international security extraterritorial (outside the states)
surveying terrorists anywhere in the world initiate pre-emptive war for a more secure
America by transforming middle eastern regimes
o Eales seuritizatio – absence of threat things of value are under threat
Militarized Police
o I otet of ofusio oer oudaries etee poliig ad high seurit, e see the
militarization of even local police police in Germany and middle east carry automatic weapons
o Dualism of the state is collapsing
o Drones used inside the country
The Security State: USA
o Historical reluctance to establish permanent federal security agency FBI 1908, grew during cold
war
o Damaging revelations led to rollback 1970s
o Spying on American citizens had to be dealt with supervise
o Then came 9/11
o Global war on terror all around the world!!
o PATRIOT ACT 2001 Expanded surveillance invade personal property books, google
o Department of homeland security, 2003 better coordination for security apparatus
very big!
o Hoelad seurit: A group of preetatie easures udertaken by a state in an attempt to
reduce the probability that a terrorist attack will occur (Amos Guiora)
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o Eeutie order estalishig DH“: to detet, prepare for, preet, protet agaist, respod to,
ad reoer fro terrorist attaks
o Need for pre-emptively successful results increases likelihood of errors and abuses
o DHS: Concerted action by all levels of government
o Usig all istruets of atioal poer ad ifluee – diplomatic, information, military,
economic, financial, intelligence, and law enforcement
o Border control, but also critical infrastructure protection train
o Collapses distinction between:
o Relatively open and accountable community police
The Security State: Canada
o Historically, RCMP managed federal security
o World War II, cold war and FLQ crisis justified expansion in security apparatus
o Uder pressure to iiliaize C“I“ reates i 4
o Intelligence gathering, not law enforcement
o Steer clear of lawful advocacy, protest, dissent
o 9/11 anti terrorist act enhanced surveillance and detention capacity
o Bill C-51
o Improves flow of information between federal agencies to counter action that
undermined the security of Canada
o Gives CSIS some enforcement powers to disrupt threats
o Facilitates preventative arrests
o Criminalize promotion of terrorism
Democratic accountability
o Enhanced security provisions may undermine liberal, constitutional democracy
o Strong oversight may undermine security effectiveness, induce politicization politicization
Approaches to international relations
o Realism a power politics model emphasizing self interest
o a) anarchy no higher power above the state
o b) egoism self interest
o c) national interest
o d) conflict in pursuit of self interest
o e) balance of power
o Neorealism international system
o a) anarchy states have to take care of themselves national security
o b) national security
o c) distribution of capabilities
o d) international system
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