Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Paradiplomacy, North American Free Trade Agreement
Course CodePolitical Science 1020E
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© Nigmendra Narain, Political Science 1020E, 2012-13: Page 1 of 1
Specific type of activity in global politics
o Professional diplomats – career officials
o Purposeful communication between states – international communications
only occur because these diplomats represent each state and
communicate on behalf of these states.
o Representation of a state, and its position/interests
o Protocols and formalities concerning specific aspects, e.g. credentials –
they are the ones that create treaties in order to enforce international laws
and rules. They handle all the formalities, when a visitor comes to a
country the ambassador ensures the security detail is up to par.
Due to growth of problems & states, simple diplomat-to-diplomat engagement is
being complemented by other diplomacies
o Efficiency – use of other agents as well
o Expertise related to science, local geography & culture, etc.
Multilateral diplomacy- many states’ representatives – NATO
Conference diplomacy – thematic diplomacy, where the agendas consist of a
certain theme or issue. E.g. climatic change
“Para-diplomacy” – different government sub-agencies other than the ministers
e.g. policy networks, these are usually below minister level.
Track-Two diplomacy- representatives of states, not representing the state,
allows officials to listen to other peoples view points.
Summit diplomacy government leaders meet to discuss matter and actually sign
Some diplomatic techniques:
o Signalling- speeches, symbols etc. We use these things to communicate
what out intent might be.
o Bargaining & Negotiation – agreement on substantive issues. Coming to a
common ground. E.g. NAFTA
o Third-Party Mediation- outside mediation by a third party.
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