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Lecture

Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Paradiplomacy, North American Free Trade Agreement


Department
Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Charles Jones

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© Nigmendra Narain, Political Science 1020E, 2012-13: Page 1 of 1
Diplomacy
©Nigmendra Narain
Diplomacy
Specific type of activity in global politics
Usually involves:
o Professional diplomats career officials
o Purposeful communication between states international communications
only occur because these diplomats represent each state and
communicate on behalf of these states.
o Representation of a state, and its position/interests
o Protocols and formalities concerning specific aspects, e.g. credentials
they are the ones that create treaties in order to enforce international laws
and rules. They handle all the formalities, when a visitor comes to a
country the ambassador ensures the security detail is up to par.
Due to growth of problems & states, simple diplomat-to-diplomat engagement is
being complemented by other diplomacies
o Efficiency use of other agents as well
o Expertise related to science, local geography & culture, etc.
Multilateral diplomacy- many states’ representatives – NATO
Conference diplomacy thematic diplomacy, where the agendas consist of a
certain theme or issue. E.g. climatic change
“Para-diplomacy” different government sub-agencies other than the ministers
e.g. policy networks, these are usually below minister level.
Track-Two diplomacy- representatives of states, not representing the state,
allows officials to listen to other peoples view points.
Summit diplomacy government leaders meet to discuss matter and actually sign
agreements.
Some diplomatic techniques:
o Signalling- speeches, symbols etc. We use these things to communicate
what out intent might be.
o Bargaining & Negotiation agreement on substantive issues. Coming to a
common ground. E.g. NAFTA
o Third-Party Mediation- outside mediation by a third party.
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