How do you fit in the landscape. Economic: state regulation of economy, trade, redistributive taxation etc. Social: religion and politics, abortion, immigration etc. Government institutions: senate, french v. english in the supreme court etc. Environmental: greenhouse gas emissions, carbon pricing, pipelines. All liberals aim to promote individual liberty. No religious dogma can reasonably be held with certainty. Every doctrine should be open to political scrutiny. Feudalism (the idea of social hierarchy with land owning, serfs) Rejecting ascribed status in favour of achieved status. Not a liberal, but his ideas sparked. Luther went against the church with his 95 theses. Unintentionally paves the way for religious pluralism and eventually toleration. Luther and john calvin: non-resistance to political authority. America 1776: representation, all men created equal. France 1789: the rights of man and citizen, rejection of the old way, abolishing old principals such as feudalism. Individualism: the primacy of the individual.