Political Science 1020E Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Archos, Social Contract, Homo Economicus

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I(cid:374) lo(cid:272)ke(cid:859)s state of (cid:374)ature, the executive power of the law of nature is possessed by each person. Anarchism (cid:858)a(cid:374)(cid:859) + (cid:858)ar(cid:272)hos(cid:859) = (cid:449)ithout rulers: we would be better off without government, cooperation is beneficial, so it tends to evolve. Ho(cid:271)(cid:271)es"s reply to a(cid:374)ar(cid:272)his(cid:373: fear, suspicion, and competition will overwhelm cooperation, a few bad apples can ruin everything, o(cid:374)e (cid:858)bogart(cid:859) (cid:894)a(cid:374)tiso(cid:272)ial (cid:271)eha(cid:448)ior(cid:895) can ruin the party. Two more anarchist responses: humans are naturally good, social cooperation without coercion is possible. Negative and positive justifications of the state: negative argument: the state is the only alternative to the state of nature. Why political authority is morally problematic: people are naturally free, equal, and independent, authority requires my consent. In return, it is responsible for protecting us. The go(cid:448)er(cid:374)(cid:373)e(cid:374)t(cid:859)s respo(cid:374)si(cid:271)ility is to prote(cid:272)t its (cid:272)itize(cid:374)s. Justifying the state = showing that there are universal political obligations: should we obey the law because it(cid:859)s the la(cid:449)? (cid:862)u(cid:374)i(cid:448)ersal(cid:863) (cid:373)ea(cid:374)s (cid:862)applies to e(cid:448)eryo(cid:374)e(cid:863)

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